Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Indigofera hirsuta
L., Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ying mao mu lan

English: hairy indigo, hirsute indigo, rough hairy indigo

Japanese: tanuki-komatsunagi

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs or shrublets, erect, 30-100 cm tall. Stems rufous, with spreading rust-colored basifixed extremely asymmetrically 2-branched trichomes looking like simple trichomes. Stipules narrowly triangular, 1-1.2 cm. Leaves 2.5-10 cm, 5-9-foliolate; petiole and rachis adaxially grooved, with spreading rust-colored basifixed trichomes; petioles 0.8-1.2 cm; stipels 1-2 mm; petiolules 1.5-2 mm; leaflet blades opposite, elliptic to obovate, 1.5-3.5 x 0.7-2 cm, both surfaces with dense spreading gray basifixed trichomes, midvein abaxially prominent, secondary veins 4-6 on each side of midvein, base cuneate, apex rounded and with a ca. 0.2 mm mucro. Racemes 10-20 cm, densely flowered; bracts linear-triangular, ca. 4 mm, caducous. Pedicel ca. 2 mm, deflexed after flowering. Calyx 4-6 mm, with spreading gray basifixed trichomes; tube ca. 1 mm; teeth setaceous, 3-5 x as long as tube. Corolla red; standard with white blotches at base, obovate-elliptic, 4-5 x 3-4 mm, outside hairy; wings 4-5 x 1.2-1.5 mm, glabrous, apical margin hairy; keel white with a red tip, 4-5 x 1.2-2.5 mm, glabrous, apical margin hairy, spur ca. 0.7 mm. Stamens 3-4.5 mm; anthers ovoid. Ovary hairy, with 6-9 ovules. Legume cylindric, straight, round in cross section, 1.5-2 cm x 2-2.5 mm, with spreading trichomes; endocarp black blotched. Seeds 6-9 per legume, brown, cubic"  (Flora of China online).

"Low spreading plant, woody at the base, shoots with dark brown, spreading hairsLeaves odd-pinnate, leaflets 5 or 7, silky-white tomentose below, elliptic-obovate, larger terminal one to just over 2 cm long. Racemes dense; peduncle, pedicels, and calyx brown pubescent.  Corolla small, salmon-red.  Pod cylindrical, ca 1.5 cm long, with spreading dark brown hairs.  Seeds nearly square or rectangular in outline." (Sykes, 1970; p. 156).

Habitat/ecology:  "Indigofera hirsuta occurs as a weed in cultivated and waste areas, in grassland, savanna, dry and deciduous forest, on river banks and beaches, at 0-1500 m altitude.  It requires an annual rainfall of 900-2500 mm and an annual mean temperature of 15-28*C.  It does not tolerate frost.  A dry season stimulates flowering and seed production.  Although generally fairly tolerant to shade, growth under heavy shade in an established stand of pine trees in Costa Rica was poor.  Hairy indigo is tolerant to poor soil conditions, growing well on moderately poor, sandy soils with low pH, and on slopes.  It requires moderately to well-drained soils with a pH of 5-8 and is intolerant of waterlogging"  (Hanum &Van der Maesen, 1997; p. 160).

In Niue, "a casual adventive that was persisting in an old pasture.  It was flowering and seeding prolifically where the ground cover was fairly light" (Sykes, 1970; p. 156).  "Uncommon in waste places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 25).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Africa and Madagascar to southern Asia and eastward to northern Australia, now widely introduced and naturalized elsewhere" (Smith, 1985; p. 184).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 25)
Uncommon per Whistler. Voucher cited: Whistler 2969
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 184)
Vouchers cited: DA 9562, DA 9669 (FDA 13250)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12030 (PAP)
Adventice
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 112)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 149)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58614 (US), Fosberg 58730 (US), Thaman & Manner 136 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9545 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 85)
Voucher cited: Pancher s.n.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 156)
Persisting from cultivation per Sykes. Voucher cited: CHR 150553
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island eradicated
invasive
Miles, Joel (year unknown)
Eradication program underway as of June, 2007.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island eradicated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 9)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 231)
In grassland and at roadsides.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 275)
In waste places in and about towns; an introduced weed.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Open slopes, trailsides, grasslands near rivers, sandy ground near seashores; below 100 m".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 147)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 191-192)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 50)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Open slopes, trailsides, grasslands near rivers, sandy ground near seashores; below 100 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 18)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 4, 7)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 17 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 14 DEC 2010.