Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Imperata cylindrica
(L.) Beauv., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 22 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 26 (Go to the risk assessment  (U.S. (Florida)))

Other Latin names:  Imperata arundinacea Cyr.

Common name(s): [more details]

Bikol: gogon, kógon

Bontoc: gaon, goon

Chinese: bai mao

English: alang-alang, blady grass, cogon grass, imperata, Japanese blood grass, satintail

Fijian: gi

French: impérata cylindrique, impérate, paille de dys, paillotte

Ibatan: buchid

Ifugao: bulum

Iloko: kogon, panáu

Japanese: chi, chigaya, tsubana

Kwara‘ae: fa‘i lai

Palauan: kasoring

Pampangan: ilib

Spanish: caminadora, carrizo, cisca, marciega, virora

Tagalog: kogon

Habit:  grass

Description: 

Genus:  "Rhizome subterranean; flowering culms of few internodes, tall; leaf-blades nearly all arising from near the base of the culm, very long, erect; inflorescence a much branched panicle, its branches ascending close to the main axis, the whole compact and cylindric at flowering; branchlets not jointed, spikelets paired or solitary, all alike, bisexual, if paired pedicels unequal, and bearing a few long fine hairs near the thickened top and many fine spreading white hairs also on the base of the spikelets, hairs twice as long as the glumes or more; glumes about equal, hairy on the back, thin; lower floret neuter, lemma much smaller than the glumes, no palea; upper floret hermaphrodite, lemma thin, not awned, palea present."

Key to species of Imperata:

Imperata cylindrica:  Stamens 2.  Panicle up to 30 x 2 cm.
Imperata conferta:  Samen 1.  Panicle up to 50 x 5 cm.

Species:  (var. major) (Nees) C.E. Hubbard ex Hubb. et Vaughan.  Rhizomatous perennial grass throwing up vertical flowering culms 30-200 cm tall, but commonly less than 100 cm; rhizome whitish, nodes long-hairy, the cataphylls straw-coloured, strongly striate, smooth and often 2-pointed, internodes 1.5 cm long; erect shoots with cataphylls at first similar to the rhizome, quickly changing to the foliage leaves;  sheaths smooth, striate, with a few marginal hairs towards the throat, 7.5 cm long, increasing upwards, overlapping; blades narrowed to both ends, broadest about the middle, the midrib broad at the base, acuminate, often inrolled, upper surface hairy towards the base or scabrid along the first 3-4 nerves either side of the midrib, otherwise smooth, hairless below, strongly scabrid along the margin, up to 180 cm long by 2.5 cm wide; ligule an acute membrane about 1.8 mm deep, backed by some fine hairs.  Inflorescence a loose strict subspiciform panicle up to 30 cm long by 2 cm across, densely white-hairy; branches of the panicle many, short, ascending, the lowest about 5 cm long; spikelets alike and mostly in pairs, one short-pedicelled, the other long-pedicelled, pedicels respectively 0.8 mm and 1.8 mm; callus of glumes with long silky hairs 2.5 cm long; lower glume obscurely 3-nerved, hyaline, delicate, lanceolate-acute, 2.8 mm long; upper glume narrower, obscurely 5-nerved, 2.6 mm long, fringed at the top; lower lemma delicately hyaline, denticulate, 1.6 mm long; palea nil; upper lemma similarly delicately hyaline and denticulate, 1.6 mm long; palea similar denticulate, deleicate and nyaline but much wider, wrapped around the stamens and pistil, 1.2 mm long; stamens 2, anthers 3 mm long at anthesis, orange; stigmata 2, purple, plumose" (Gilliland, 1971; pp. 220-221).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  A common weed (C4 plant) in hot climatic conditions in several countries of Africa south of Sahara, South and South-east Asia. "Cogon grass invades a wide variety of natural habitats such as desert dunes, wetlands, savannahs and forests, where it out-competes wild plants..." (Randall & Marinelli, 1996; p. 149). "Its habitat includes the dry sand dunes of shores and deserts as well as swamps and river margins.  It grows in grasslands, in cultivated annual crops, and on plantations.  It quickly enters abandoned farmlands, and it may be seen on railroad and highway embankments and on both deforested and reforested areas.  It can withstand long dry spells on light soils and will tolerate waterlogging on heavy soils.  It becomes established most quickly on medium to good soils and is less frequently a pest on poor soils.  Although sometimes reported to be a weed of poor soils, it probably inhabits these areas because of lack of competition from better grasses which cannot be supported there.  The species makes it maximum development in wet areas of good soils.  If all other factors of the environment are suitable, it can occupy any soil type where sufficient moisture exists to support growth.  The plant grows at altitudes to 2,000 m in several parts of the world and to 2,700 m in Indonesia"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 64).

"Imperata cylindrica grows in well lit regularly mown or burnt areas where there is little competition from taller plants.  It prefers loose, disturbed or sandy soils.  Dense masses compete with lower growing plants, burn readily, and recover vigorously from the rhizomes after mowing or fire.  It does not tolerate shade and ceases abruptly at the edge of rainforest or other heavy shade." (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 40). In Papua New Guinea, "a coloniser of disturbed land and a weed of plantations and fallow cultivation" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 42).

"The leaves are easily burnt in dry weather, but the underground rhizome is undamaged.  After a grass fire new growth is started immediately and is followed by gregarious flowering.  Other plants growing with it (such as tree and shrub seedlings) are frequently killed by a burn or repeated burning so that open stretches of Imperata cylindrica are often very persistent.  The roots also are highly competitive and exert a depressing effect on other plants" (Gilliland, 1971; pp. 220-221).

Propagation:  I. cylindrica may reproduce by seed and rhizomes. Flowering of I. cylindrica is usually initiated by stress, such as burning, cutting or drought. Numerous seeds produced (as many as 3,000 per plant) which can be wind-dispersed over long distances. Santiago (1965) reported that 95 percent can germinate within a week of harvest and seeds can remain viable for at least one year. I. cylindrica also reproduces Vegetatively. Eussen (1980) reported that a single rhizome node could lead to the production of 350 shoots in six weeks and ground cover of 4 square meters in 11 weeks.

Native range:  Old World.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 131)
Not common. Voucher: Whistler W2931 (BISH 430412)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430412)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island probably introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
Var. major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. & R.E. Vaughn. Vouchers cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5757 (CANB, MEL); 1898, J.H. Maiden (K, NSW)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 5)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
"Potential invader".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 3, 9)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 50)
Vouchers cited: Herbst & Falanruw 6894 (US), Herbst & Falanruw 6907 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
"Potential invader".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 59916 (US, BISH, POM, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588748)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 3, 8)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432395)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1999) (voucher ID: BISH 660001)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1999) (voucher ID: BISH 660002)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 31696)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31698)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 125050)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 125051)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 125052)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 125053)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 45)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1299 (US, GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649453)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000255)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 125054)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 654835)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (year unknown)
Reported present at this location but not confirmed.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 3, 8)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 85)
In vicinity of the airport. Also possibly at Ngardmau but not flowering (Joel Miles, pers. com.). Subject of an eradiction program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1999) (voucher ID: BISH 660000)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (year unknown)
Suspected but non-flowering infestation.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 25)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 42)
From sea level to 3000 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 30)
On open slopes, often gregariously occupying enormous areas. It ascends to 2,300 m altitude.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 125044)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 125045)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 125046)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 417549)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 417589)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417804)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 131)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 418178)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 402148)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Whitmore, T. C. (1969) (p. 261)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 83)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 125042)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 125043)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 125041)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 125057)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1903) (voucher ID: BISH 125059)
Taxon name on voucher: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 173)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 605)
"Open gullies, sunny places on hills, flats on volcanic soil near coast".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 50)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 173)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 66)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island probably introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 40, 116)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 70)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 65)

Comments:  On U.S. Federal and State of Hawai‘i noxious weed lists.

Fosberg et al. (1987; p. 45) list I. cylindrica as being present in Saipan, Tinian and Guam and I. conferta as being present in Saipan, Tinian, Rota, Guam, Palau and Yap. Yuncker (1959, p. 64) lists it as being present in Tonga, but it is apparently I. conferta.

Control: 

Physical: In small areas, dig and remove all plants and underground stems. Repeat treatments will probably be necessary.

Flattening foliage with rollers or boards can help to suppress I. cylindrica if used in combination with a legume cover crop (Bourgoing and Boutin 1987; Cox and Johnson 1991).

Chemical: Glyphosate is applied typically at a dose rate of 1.8 kg a.e./ha to actively growing foliage of I. cylindrica from where it is absorbed and translocated to the rhizomes, causing death of most of the plant within 2-4 weeks. A little regrowth is almost inevitable and this should be treated with spot applications. Glyphosate can be applied in volume rates ranging from 20 l/ha (using spinning disc sprayers) to 600 l/ha (using hand-held hydraulic sprayers). Glyphosate should be applied 6-8 hours before rain falls and washes it off the weed. Burning several months before treatment enhances uptake of the herbicide.

Biological: Biological control information from the publication "Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States".

Additional information:
Fact sheet on Imperata cylindrica on the web site of the Alien Plants Working Group, "Weeds Gone Wild".
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Photos and additional information at the Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the publication "Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control".
Information from the Bugwood Wiki.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).
Proceedings of the Regional Cogongrass Conference: A cogongrass management guide.
Species profile from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center.
Article from "Wildland Weeds".

Additional online information about Imperata cylindrica is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Imperata cylindrica as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Imperata cylindrica may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1903. Voucher specimen #BISH 125059 (Seale, A.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 125045 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 129).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 125050 (Gillespie, J.W. 3163.5).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 125044 (Hitchcock, A.S. 658).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 125046 (Christophersen, E. 595).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1940. Voucher specimen #BISH 125053 (Degener, O. 13572).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 125054 (Buchholz, J.T. 1507).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 402148 (Giffen 20).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 125041 (Yuncker, T.G. 15457).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 125042 (Yuncker, T.G. 15918).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 125043 (Yuncker, T.G. 15936).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 125051 (Smith, A.C. 8769).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 125052 (Smith, A.C. 9485).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31698 (Koroveibau, D. 7868).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 125057 (Cheesman, L.E. A13).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 31696 (Smith, A.C. 16875).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417804 (Whistler, W.A. W475).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 418178 (Whistler, W.A. W1528).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 417549 (Whistler, W.A. W2588).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 417589 (Whistler, W.A. W2493).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 430412 (Whistler, W.A. W2931).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 432395 (Stemmermann, R.L. 3180B).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 588748 (Fosberg, F.R. 59916).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 649453 (Herbst, D.R. 7104).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000255 (Herbst, D.R. 7104).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 654835 (Koyama, H. 8251).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1999. Voucher specimen #BISH 660000 (M.V.C.Falanruw 11002).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1999. Voucher specimen #BISH 660001 (M.V.C.Falanruw 11012).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1999. Voucher specimen #BISH 660002 (M.V.C.Falanruw 11011).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1982. Micronesian Poaceae: Critical and distributional notes. Micronesica 18(2):45-102.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Gilliland, H. B. 1971. A revised flora of Malaya. Volume III, Grasses of Malaya. Government Printing Office, Singapore.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The distribution and importance of arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture and forestry plantations in southern China. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia. 185 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 463 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Miles, Joel. 0. Joel Miles, pers. com.

Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. 93 p.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Randall, J. M./Marinelli, J. (eds.). 1996. Invasive plants: weeds of the global garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Handbook 149. 111 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. Report to the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 32 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane. 2000. Invasive plant species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 31 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Van Driesche, Roy/Lyon, Suzanne/Blossey, Bernd/Hoddle, Mark/Reardon, Richard. 2002. Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States. USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2002-04. 413 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1980. The vegetation of eastern Samoa. Allertonia 2:45-90.

Whitmore, T. C. 1969. The vegetation of the Solomon Islands. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 255:259-270.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 21 JUN 2010.