Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hypericum androsaemum
L., Hypericaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: amber, sweet amber, tutsan

French: androsème, toute-saine

Spanish: androsema, toda buena, toda santa

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A glabrous shrub with spreading stems of 30-150 cm height.  Leaves are glabrous and opposite, entire, broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, sessile, and 4-15 cm long. There are minute oil glands on the lower surface.  Pale yellow flowers of 2-3 cm diameter are borne in clusters at the ends of branches.  Stamens are as long as the petals.  Petals sometimes have black dots along the margins.  Fruits are fleshy berries, reddish at first and becoming black, broadly ellipsoid to globose, and 7-12 mm long.  They contain numerous brown seeds of c. 1 mm length"  (Weber, 2003; p. 208).

"Shrub, 30-90 cm. Leaves 2.5-) 4-9 cm, sessile or amplexicaul, broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, obtuse or rounded to subapiculate or subacute, when crushed not smelling of goats. Sepals 8-12 (-15) mm, markedly unequal, oblong-ovate to broadly ovate, enlarging in fruit, persistent. Petals 6-10 (-12) mm, obovate. Stamens shorter than petals to slightly exceeding them. Styles shorter than the ovary. Fruit baccate, 7-10 (-12) mm, broadly cylindric-ellipsoid to globose, reddish, becoming black, deciduous" (Davis, 1967; p. 366).

Habitat/ecology:  "Bushland, grassland, forest edges, riparian habitats.  Where native, this plant grows in damp woods, shady hedges and other moist places.  It is invasive because its rather large leaves shade out native species and the shrub forms dense thickets.  It covers extensive areas and displaces native vegetation.  The plant grows both in shade and full sun"  (Weber, 2003; p. 208).  "Woodland margins and stream banks, 250-1300 m" (Davis, 1967; p. 366). "The plant prefers shaded sites and forest edges in regions where annual rainfall exceeds 750 mm" (Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992; p. 692).

Propagation:  Seed, dispersed by birds, and cuttings.

Native range:  Western Europe, scattered in southern Europe and Caucasia, northern Iran, western Syria, northwest Africa (Davis, 1967; p. 366).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 169)
Victoria, Tasmania, southwest Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 169)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 539)
"Escape from cultivation in open forest, forest margins, scrub and other secondary growth, waste places and garden surrounds".
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Control: 

Physical:  "Isolated plants can be hand pulled or dug out.  Roots must be removed to prevent regrowth.

Chemical:  An effective herbicide is picloram, best applied before fruits develop"  (Weber, 2003; p. 208).

"1. Cut down and paint stump (spring-summer only): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (5g/L). 2. Spray (November-January): glyphosate (10ml/L + penetrant) or metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L) or triclopyr 600 EC (50ml/10L) or Yates Hydrocotyle Killer (250ml/10L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.