Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hiptage benghalensis
(L.) Kurz, Malpighiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Hiptage madablota Gaertn.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: feng zheng guo

English: helicopter-flower, hiptage

French: hiptage du bengale, liane de cerf, liane papillon, liane rouge

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A large, woody, straggling or climbing shrub with young branches being grey tomentose.  The opposite and entire leaves are oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 9-21 cm long and 4-9 cm wide, acute or acuminate, glabrous, and have petioles of c. 1 cm length.  White and fragrant flowers of 2-3 cm diameter are borne in erect, pubescent racemes of 10-20 cm length, the pedicels being 15-20 mm long.  Flowers have a yellow centre and orbicular to elliptic petals that are hairy outside.  Fruits are samaras with three wings each, the middle wing being 4-6 cm long and the lateral wings 2-3 cm long" (Weber, 2003; p. 200).

"Vine-like shrub or liana with scandent branches to 5 m high or more.  Leaves simple, opposite, blade usually elliptic and 6-18 cm long with an attenuate tip.  Flowers intermittently during the year; flowers many, fragrant, borne in compact axillary racemes.  Corolla of five free, elliptic to round, reflexed petals 1-1.7 cm long, white with one petal yellow in the center, margins fringed.  Fruit a samara with three spreading, papery, oblanceolate to elliptic wings 2-5 cm long"  (Whistler, 2000; p. 261).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges, disturbed sites.  Where invasive, the plant climbs over native shrubs and trees, smothering them and preventing their growth and regeneration"  (Weber, 2003; p. 200).  Prefers climates ranging from warm temperate to tropical (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 110).

Dry and moist areas from sea level to 3500 ft. elevation in Hawai‘i (Hawaii‘s Most Invasive Horticultural Plants). In La Réunion, climbs over and smothers native vegetation.

Propagation:  Seeds or cuttings (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 110). The seeds are readily dispersed by wind.

Native range:  India to Southeast Asia and the Philippines, exact native range obscure owing to extensive cultivation; widely cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2006) (pp. 3-4)
Voucher cited: T. Flynn 7117 (AD, BISH, MO, NY, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. (2006) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: C. Daehler 1064 (BISH), C. Daehler 1065 (HAW), Herbst 656 (HLA), Imada 2001-49 (BISH)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 110)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 4)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Dense forests, sparse forests, shrub forests of valleys, riverbanks, field margins, roadsides; (100-) 200-1900 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 192)
In thickets or forests.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 48)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Dense forests, sparse forests, shrub forests of valleys, riverbanks, field margins, roadsides; (100-) 200-1900 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 4)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1988) (pp. 187-204)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)

Comments:  A problem species in Hawai‘i. Reported to be a very invasive species on La Réunion and Mauritius (Lorence & Sussman, 1988).

Control: 

Chemical: "Very low volume basal bark applications of triclopyr killed 50% of treated plants. Survivors were plants with larger diameter stems in which the treatment did not cover the circumference of the stem completely" (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Report (PDF format) from US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station, Hawaii "Plants of Hawaii".
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.

Additional online information about Hiptage benghalensis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Hiptage benghalensis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Hiptage benghalensis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bailey, L. H./Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan, New York. 1290 pp.

Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology (2006) 31, 747-758.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. 2006. New records of naturalized and naturalizing plants around Lyon Arboretum, Mānoa Valley, O‘ahu. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 87:3-18.

Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 4. R233;union. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-4E. 37 pp.

Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-3E. 35 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. 1988. Diversity, density, and invasion in a Mauritian wet forest. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Garden 25:187-204.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 2006. New naturalized plant records for Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 88:1-5.

MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarenes Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18 (1):51-61.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers No. 65. 35 pp.

State of Hawaii. 2004. Hawaii's Most Invasive Horticultural Plants. On-line list and additional information.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 8 MAY 2013.