Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hevea brasiliensis
(A.Juss.) Mll.Arg., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Siphonia brasiliensis Willd. ex A. Juss.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xiang jiao shu

English: Brazilian rubber tree, hevea, natural rubber, Para rubber tree, rubbertree

Fijian: rapa

French: arbre de Para, caoutchouc, hévéa

Spanish: árbol del caucho, cauchotero de Pará, jebe, siringa

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A more or less deciduous tree to 20 m tall with smooth grayish trunk; leaves of 3 distinct, elliptic entire, petiolulate leaflets, each 10-20 cm long, narrowed-acute at both ends; flowers in open axillary panicles half as long as the leaf; flowers small, greenish-yellow; calyx 5-lobed; white-tomentose; petals none; capsules subglobose 3-lobed, woody, 5-7 cm thick, brown; seeds oblong, mottled brown, nearly 2.5 cm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 379).

Habitat/ecology:  "Although Hevea brasiliensis evolved in moist to well drained tropical rainforests it can tolerate drier conditions or occasionally slight drought, to which it responds by shedding leaves.  It germinates best under semi-shade, and grows quickly without branching towards the light above"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 38).

Propagation:  Seed.  "The seeds may be ejected for up to 15 m by the explosion of mature fruits, but otherwise have few means of dispersal" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 38).

Native range:  Amazonian South America; widely cultivated throughout the tropics as a source of natural rubber (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 38).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 140)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 86)
Vouchers cited: S.F. Glassman 2411 (BIAH), M. Takamatsu 798 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 143121)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 143122)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 143123)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 540)
Mostly in abandoned plantations. Vouchers cited: DA 12458, Smith 9440, DA 16030, DF 432 (Damanu 97)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 33153)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 143119)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 42)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Brel, Marcello (year unknown)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 140)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 143120)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 428561)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 438027)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 337)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 450)
Cultivated.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (pp. 9-10)
Voucher: Flynn 6959 (PTBG, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 287)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417444)
Taxon name on voucher: Hevea brasiliensis (A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated for rubber. S. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 48)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 38, 115)
From remnants from plantations.
Naturalized
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 50)

Comments:  Seen along the road to Vaipouli College, Savai‘i, Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002). May also be on Upolu, Samoa (Bill Cable, pers. com.). Should be monitored for possible spread.

Reported naturalizing on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 38).

Control: 

Chemical: "Pending the results of field trials seedlings should be sprayed with 2% Roundup plus Pulse in clean water when in full leaf, and saplings and trees basal bark treated with 10% Garlon 600 in diesel oil" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 38).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 2 NOV 2011.