Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Heliconia spp.
Heliconiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Low risk, score: -1 (Go to the risk assessment for Heliconia caribaea)
Low risk (based on second screen), score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment for Heliconia stricta)
High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment for Heliconia psittacorum)
Accept, score -2 (Go to the risk assessment for Heliconia steyermaarkii)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chuukese: aruru ponape, mwakumwak

English: crab claw, heliconia, lobster claw, parrot's-flower, parrot's-plantain

Fijian: vava ni viti

Kwara‘ae: rako

Maori (Cook Islands): tiare pārata‘ito

Nangu: lawa

Rotuman: pa Samoa

Samoan: lau fao, lau fao, vae pa‘a, vae pa‘a, vae pa‘a tautau, vae pa‘a tautau

Solomon Pijin: te rau paupau

Tongan: fusi faikakai

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Characteristics of the family: "Medium sized to large rhizomatous herbs usually forming dense clones with erect leafy shoots in groups of few (1-2) to numerous (more than 50); pseudostems composed of overlapping sheathing leaf bases.  Leaves large, distichous, entire, petioles nearly absent (plants then resembling gingers) to long (plants then resembling bananas). Flowers perfect, in erect or pendent inflorescences, consisting of brightly colored, leaf-like, distichous or spirally arranged bracts, each subtending a cincinnus of flowers, each flower in turn subtended by a membranous floral bract; perianth consisting of 2 whorls connate at base with varying degrees of fusion within and between whorls; calyx of 2 connate abaxial sepals and 1 nearly distinct adaxial sepal; petals 3, connate except for distinct margins opposite distinct sepal; pollen-bearing stamens 5, staminode 1, opposite distinct sepal; filaments linear, attached to base of perianth tube; anthers tetrathecal, opening longitudinally; ovary inferior, 3-celled, ovules 1 per cell, erect; style 1.  Fruit a 1-3 seeded drupe, blue or red to orange at maturity.  Seed surrounded by stony, roughened endocarp (pyrenes), embryo straight, endosperm copious"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1440).

H. bihai (L.) L.:  "Herb to 6 m high, coarse, clump forming, arising from branched rhizomes.  Leaves simple, opposite, two-ranked, blade banana-leaf-like, usually 60-180 cm long on a petiole about half as long.  Flowers continuously through the year in some cultivars, more restricted in others; flowers 7-30, borne within 5 to 12 or more thick, folded, ovate bracts mostly 10-25 cm long and all red-orange or with green margins, arranged in one plane on the erect, axillary rachis 25-65 cm long.  Corolla of six fused tepals mostly 5-7 cm long, white and green.  Fruit an ovoid drupe 9-11 mm long"  (Whistler, 2000; p. 243).

H. humilis (Aubl.) Jacq.:  "A coarse, red-bracted herb usually 1.5-2 m in height, grown in gardens near sea level; its bracts have green margins distally, and its perianth segments are white, with green tips"  (Smith, 1979; p. 188).

H. psittacorum L. f.:  "Herb to 1.5 m high or more, arising from an underground rhizome. Leaves simple, alternate, blade lanceolate, usually 15-50 cm long, light green, on a short or long petiole.  Flowers continuously through the year in some cultivars, more restricted in others; flowers several, borne in clusters above two to seven soft, waxy white, slightly folded, red, pink, yellow, or orange, lanceolate bracts mostly 4-13 cm long in an erect, long-stalked, terminal inflorescence 7-18 cm long.  Corolla of six narrow, fused tepals 3.5-4.5 cm long, three-angled, yellow-green to yellow-orange or red, with a dark patch toward the tip.  Fruit a yellow subglobose drupe 5-10 mm long" (Whistler, 2000; pp. 247-248).

Habitat/ecology:  Cultivated as an ornamental. Naturalizing along roadsides in Hawai‘i.

Propagation:  Seed, rhizomes

Native range:  A family comprising a single genus with over 250 species, widespread in the Neotropics with several species native to the South Pacific (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1440).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 105)
Heliconia bihai L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 113547)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 113548)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 113553)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 664744)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia bihai (L.) L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 699307)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 300)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 109)
H. psittacorum
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 572551)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia psittacorum L.f.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
H. psittacorum, H. latispatha
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 75)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
H. psittacorum, H. latispatha
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 80)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
H. psittacorum, H. latispatha
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 92)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665686)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia bicolor Benth.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
H. latispatha
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Heliconia sp.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 41)
H. latispatha. Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 295 (GUAM); Heliconia sp. Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 248 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 109)
Heliconia latispatha
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 8)
H. psittacorum; Heliconia 'Golden torch" commonly cultivated.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 46)
Heliconia psittacorum L. f. and other ornamental heliconias
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 699371)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 699372)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 699373)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618866)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia indica Lam.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 34050)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 699422)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 699468)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 188)
H. psittacorum, H. humilis. Vouchers cited: DA 16710 (H. psittacorum), DA 16227 (H. humilis)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34049)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pav.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34051)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia psittacorum L.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34052)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia acuminata L. Richard
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 92774)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 113554)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 113555)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 113556)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 113557)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 113558)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699311)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia acuminata L. Richard
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699312)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia acuminata L. Richard
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699313)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia acuminata L. Richard
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699315)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia psittacorum L.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 699467)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699475)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pav.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699476)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pav.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Heliconia psittacorum Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Heliconia bihai (L.) L., Heliconia hirsuta L. f.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Heliconia latispatha G. Bentham
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Heliconia bihai (L.) L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Heliconia psittacorum L. f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   University of California (2006)
Heliconia bihai, Heliconia humilis, Heliconia rostrata
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 349)
H. bihai, voucher cited: BRY 26370;H. psittacorum
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 349)
H. humilis, voucher cited: Florence 2510; Heliconia illustris, voucher cited: BRY 26002
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 79)
H. caribaea, H. psittacorum L. f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Heliconia cf. humilis (J.B. Aublet) N.J. Jacquin, Heliconia illustris W. Bull, Heliconia latispatha G. Bentham, Heliconia psittacorum C. Linnaeus f., Heliconia rostrata L.P. Ruiz & J.A. Pavon
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493016)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493475)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia humilis
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Heliconia psittacorum Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 108)
Heliconia humilis (Aublet) Jacquin
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 109)
H. humilis per Stone, but description sounds like H. psittacorum, (cult.); H. humilis, H. latispatha, H. psittacorum
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1441)
H. latispatha
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (1997) (p. 10)
H. latispatha; voucher cited: Hume 398 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1441)
H. bihai, H. latispatha
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1441-1442)
H. bihai, H. latispatha,H. metallica
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. (2006) (p. 8)
H. latispatha Vouchers cited: C. Daehler 1304 (BISH), K. Nagata 3121 (HLA)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 40)
H. latispatha,H. psittacorum
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 74)
Heliconia collinsiana R. F. Griggs; Heliconia humilis (Aubl.) Jacq., voucher cited: Hassall 236 (SUVA); Heliconia psittacorum L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 113559)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia indica Lam.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 103)
H. psittacorum, voucher cited: MacKee 40613; H. latispatha, voucher cited: MacKee 21961
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 256)
Heliconia bihai Voucher cited: CHR 169968
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 43)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 11)
H. psittacorum L. f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 505184)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia wagneriana Pet.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 505185)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia bihai (L.) L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 595015)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia wagneriana Pet.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 597839)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia wagneriana Pet.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 174)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia spp.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
H. latispatha
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago native
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 98)
Heliconia bahai L. Wild and cultivated.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 26)
Heliconia indica Lamk.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 228)
Planted occasionally for ornamental purposes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Nu‘ulua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 428060)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28734)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 113545)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 113550)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 113552)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 436998)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 699309)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 113544)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 113546)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 113549)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 113551)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 439276)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 439288)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia paka A.C.Sm.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 514309)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 699308)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia laufao W.J.Kress
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 2998)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia latispatha
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Anuta Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 80624)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia indica Lam.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 575152)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia solomonensis W.J.Kress
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Malaita Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 699481)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia solomonensis W.J.Kress
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Malaita Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 699482)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia solomonensis W.J.Kress
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 113561)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia solomonensis W.J.Kress
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ndeni (Santa Cruz) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 79937)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia indica Lam.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Nendo Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 699370)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia indica Lam.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Santa Isabel (Bughotu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 699479)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia solomonensis W.J.Kress
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Santa Isabel (Bughotu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 699480)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia solomonensis W.J.Kress
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ulawa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 113560)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia indica Lam.
Solomon Islands
Temotu Islands
Temotu Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 79261)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliconia indica Lam.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 53)
Heliconia psittacorum
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 66)
H. psittacorum
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 54)
Heliconia humilis
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 28)
Heliconia bihai, Heliconia latispatha and Heliconia psittacorum
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 47)
Heliconia psittacorum L. f.; casual. Other heliconias cultivated.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 115)
Heliconia sp.

Comments:  Naturalized specimens noted in Samoa.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Heliconia spp. is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Heliconia spp. as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Heliconia spp. may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM172(Blackburn 209).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 34050 (Payne 9864).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 113559 (Vanchu, M.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 699422 (Payne 9864).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 113549 (Eames, A.J. 199).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 113545 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 158).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 113547 (Garber, D.W. 943).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 113552 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 158).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 699307 (Garber, D.W. 943).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 113555 (MacDaniels, L.H. 1152).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 113544 (Christophersen, E. 315).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 113546 (Christophersen, E. 62).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 113551 (Christophersen, E. 62).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1930. Voucher specimen #BISH 113548 (Diefenderfer, P.T. 4).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1930. Voucher specimen #BISH 664744 (Ioane for P. Diefer 4).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1931. Voucher specimen #BISH 113550 (Christophersen, E. 2333).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 113560 (Brass, L.J. 2962).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 113561 (Brass, L.J. 2619).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 699479 (Brass, L.J. 3382).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 699480 (Brass, L.J. 3382).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 699371 (Smith, A.C. 193).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 699372 (Smith, A.C. 193).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 699373 (Smith, A.C. 193).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 113557 (St.John, H. 18263).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 113558 (St.John, H. 18263).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 699467 (St.John, H. 18263).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 618866 (St.John, H. 19163).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 113553 (Yuncker, T.G. 9443).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1940. Voucher specimen #BISH 113554 (Degener, O. 13988).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 113556 (Degener, O. 14352).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 699468 (Degener, O. 14011).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 92774 (Smith 8900).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 699481 (Stone, B.C.M. 2398).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 699482 (Stone, B.C.M. 2398).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 505184 (Fosberg, F.R. 47427).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 505185 (Fosberg, F.R. 47427).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28734 (Bristol, M.L. 2206).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 595015 (B.S.Blackburn 209).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 597839 (B.S.Blackburn 209).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 34049 (Parham, J.W. 16708).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 34051 (Parham, J.W. 16710).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 34052 (Parham, J.W. 16725).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 699311 (Parham, J.W. 16725).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 699312 (Parham, J.W. 16725).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 699313 (Parham, J.W. 16725).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 699315 (Parham, J.W. 16710).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 699475 (Parham, J.W. 16708).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 699476 (Parham, J.W. 16708).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 79261 (Yen, D.E. 19938).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 80624 (Yen, D. 14800).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 79937 (Powell, J.M. 19846).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 699370 (Powell, J.M. 19846).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 448643 (Weiner, M.A. MW-73-F-256).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 699308 (Whistler, W.A. W648).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 439276 (Cox, P.A. 33).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 439288 (Cox, P.A. 33).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1979. Voucher specimen #BISH 428060 (Whistler, W.A. W4236).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 436998 (Teraoka, W. 350).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 699309 (Teraoka, W. 350).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493016 (Florence, J. 2597).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493475 (Florence, J. 2501).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 514309 (Kress & Stager 83-1458).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 575152 (Kress & Stager 83-1502).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 572551 (Raulerson, L. 10067).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 665686 (Sykes, W.R. 474490).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. 2006. New records of naturalized and naturalizing plants around Lyon Arboretum, Mānoa Valley, O‘ahu. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 87:3-18.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 1997. New naturalized plant records for Kaua‘i. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 49:9-13.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Palau. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 44 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. 1989. An Annotated list of the vascular plants of Pulawat Atoll. Micronesica 22:23-63.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 463 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1999. Voucher specimen #PTBG300(Tim Flynn 6567).

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Setchell, William Albert. 1924. American Samoa; part I. Vegetation of Tutuila Island. part II. Ethnobotany of the Samoans. part III. Vegetation of Rose Atoll. The Carnegie Institution of Washington. 275 pp. + illus.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

University of California. 2006. Moorea Digital Flora Project (online resource).

Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Tropical ornamentals: a guide. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 542 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 MAR 2010.