Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Grevillea banksii
R.Br., Proteaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Bank's grevillea, byfield-waratah, dwarf silky-oak, Forster's grevillea, kahili flower, red silky-oak, red-flower silky-oak, silky oak

French: grevillea de Banks

Hawaiian: ha‘iku, kāhili, ‘oka pua ‘ula‘ula

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A small tree, partly deciduous, with gray to reddish hairy young branches.  Leaves 4 to 8 inches long, compound, with three to seven sharply pointed leaflets, blades oval to lanceolate, broader toward base, grayish hair below, hairy to hairless above.  Flowers showy, in pairs in axils of deciduous small bracts, in straight 2- to 4-inch-long racemes; calyx tube over 1/2 inch long, red; stamens short, style 1 to 2 inches long, red;  stigma yellow.  Fruit a follicle, brown, leathery, densely hairy, 1/2 to 1 inch long, tipped with a slender curved style.  Seed flat."  (Haselwood, 1991).

Habitat/ecology:  This noxious, medium-sized, evergreen tree is similar to silky oak  [Grevillea robusta] in most features (C.W. Smith, 1985; p. 191). "Infests pastures and natural areas in mesic areas. Fruit and ovaries may cause dermatitis and pollen may trigger hay fever; foliage poisonous to horses"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seed.

Native range:  Queensland, Australia; cultivated elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 751-752)
Vouchers cited: DA 12350, DA 6055
Perhaps locally naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 14598)
Taxon name on voucher: Grevillea banksii R.Br.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6639 (PAP)
Ornementale rare.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 494028)
Taxon name on voucher: Grevillea banksii R.Br.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1086)
Voucher cited: Rock s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1086)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 147)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1086)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1086)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1086)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1086)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 157)
Ornamental.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 46)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Utilisé pour la foresterie et planté comme plante ornementale.

Comments:  On the State of Hawai‘i noxious weed list.

Control: 

Chemical: "Susceptible to triclopyr ester (2.5% product in diesel) applied to frill cuts, although the oil should not be necessary if the stem is frilled. Saplings sensitive to cut surface application of glyphosate and triclopyr. Larger trees may require end-to-end notches or drilling to achieve an adequate dose" (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Additional online information about Grevillea banksii is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Grevillea banksii as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Grevillea banksii may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" about Grevillea banksii

Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003)

Information on Grevillea banksii from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database

References:

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1961. Voucher specimen #BISH 14598 (Pillay, S. 12350).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 494028 (Florence, J. 2448).

Celhay, Jean-Claude. 1974. Fleurs et plantes de Tahiti. Papeete (Tahiti): Éditions du Pacifique. 143 pp.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Little, Elbert L./Skolmen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). USDA Agriculture Handbook 679. Washington, D.C. 377 pp. + plates.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Wester, Lyndon. 1992. Origin and distribution of adventive flowering plants in Hawai‘i. In: Stone, Charles P.; Smith, Clifford W. and Tunison, J. Timothy. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research. University of Hawaii, Cooperative National Park Research Studies Unit, Honolulu. University of Hawaii Press. .

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2013.