Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Gossypium hirsutum
L., Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Gossypium punctatum Schumach.; Gossypium religiosum L.; Gossypium taitense Parl.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: algodon, atgodon

Chinese: gao di mian, lu di mian, mei zhou mian

English: American cotton, American upland cotton, Bourbon cotton, cotton, Mexican cotton, upland cotton

Fijian: vauvau, vauvau ni vavalangi

French: coton velu, cotonnier américain, cotonnier d'altitude, cotonnier hirsute

Maori (Cook Islands): vavai

Samoan: vavae

Spanish: algodón, algodonero americano

Tahitian: vavai

Tongan: vavae

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs or annual subshrubs 1-2 m tall, usually stellate pubescent.  Leaf blades usually wider than long, 8-15 cm wide, cut angulately to about the middle into 3 or 5 lobes, the lobes broadly triangular to ovate, acute to acuminate, midvein on lower surface with a basal gland, stipules 0.5-2 cm long.  Flowers solitary or in sympodial inflorescences, pedicels 2-4 cm long, with 3 subterminal, unfringed nectaries; involucral bracts ovate, usually 30-60 mm long, laciniate, the teeth 3-19, acute to acuminate, separated by basically acute sinuses; calyx truncate or 5-toothed, the tube 0.5-0.6 cm long; petals cream-colored to yellow, usually with a basal maroon spot and fading to pinkish purple, 3-5 cm long.  Capsules 3-5-celled, globose to broadly ovoid, beaked, 2.5-3.5 cm long, the surface smooth.  Seeds 5-11 per cell, lint copious, white to reddish brown"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 876).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji (native), "occurs sparingly (or perhaps frequently in a few isolated localities) at elevations from near sea level to about 30 m"  (Smith, 1981; p. 429).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Native to the tropical and subtropical Americas, the Caribbean, and questionably some Pacific islands, but widespread in cultivation"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 876).  "Presumably indigenous in the West Indies and Central America and introduced into Africa and thence into most tropical Old World areas in post-Columbian times.  However, var. taitense is believed to be indigenous in eastern Polynesia and apparently westward as far as Fiji"  (Smith, 1981; p. 429).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
var. marie-galante (Watt) Hutchinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Medinilla (Marpi, Medinilla) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. taitense (Parl.) Roberty
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
var. taitense (Parl.) Roberty. Also var. marie-galante (Watt) Hutchinson, introduced.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
var. marie-galante (Watt) Hutchinson
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
var. taitense (Parl.) Roberty. Also var. marie-galante (Watt) Hutchinson, introduced.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. taitense (Parl.) Roberty
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll possibly native
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Rare
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 429-430)
Vouchers cited: Seemann 28, Pritchard s.n.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mamanuthas Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 429-430)
Voucher cited: O. & I. Degener 32354
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Oneata Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 429-430)
Voucher cited: Bryan 488
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 429-430)
Vouchers cited: DA 12284, DA 4008, DA 4029, DA 4027, DA 4028, DA 13691
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 429-430)
Voucher cited: Smythe s.n.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. hirsutum; Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman , K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 14870 (PAP). Also var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty, indigène
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. hirsutum; vouchers cited: S.P. Perlman 10029(PAP), J. Florence 8511 (PAP). Also var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty, indigène
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty; voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 64781 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. taitense (F. Parlatore) G.É. Roberty
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 409-410)
Occasionally escaped from cultivation. Rare.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
var. taitense (Parl.) Roberty. Also var. marie-galante (Watt) Hutchinson, introduced.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 21)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 000415-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 876)
Sparingly naturalized
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kotu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640309)
Taxon name on voucher: Gossypium hirsutum
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 161)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Commercially cultivated for cotton, common on roadsides in cotton-growing areas.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 3 SEP 2012 and was last updated on 29 SEP 2012.