Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Gossypium barbadense
L., Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Gossypium brasiliense Macfad.; Gossypium peruvianum Cav.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: algodon, atgodon

Chinese: hai dao mian

English: American Pima cotton, American-Egyptian cotton, Brazilian cotton, cotton, Egyptian cotton, Gallini cotton, kidney cotton, long-staple cotton, Peruvian cotton, Pima cotton, sea island cotton, upland cotton

Fijian: vauvau, vauvau ni vavalangi

French: coton des Indes Occidentales, cotonnier d'Egypte

Hawaiian: kī‘ailana, pulupulu, pulupulu haole

I-Kiribati: te baobao, te baubau

Mangarevan: komiro ina, komorio iva

Maori (Cook Islands): vavai, vavaī, vavaī, vavaī papa‘ā

Marquesan: aavaih, uru

Marshallese: kotin

Nauruan: duwoduwo

Niuean: vavae

Pohnpeian: koatun

Samoan: vavae, vavae, vavae pālagi, vavae pālagi

Spanish: algodón, algodonero de las Barbados

Tahitian: evavai, vavai, vavai, vavay

Tongan: vavae, vavae tonga

Wallisian: vavae, vavai

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs or annual subshrubs 1-2 (-3) m tall, glabrous to sparsely stellate pubescent.  Leaf blades usually somewhat wider than long, 5-15 cm wide, cut usually beyond the middle into 3, 5 or 7 lobes, the lobes lanceolate to ovate, acuminate, midvein on lower surface with a basal gland, stipules 1-5 cm long.  Flowers solitary or in sympodial inflorescences, pedicels 1-4 cm long, with 3 subterminal, fringed nectaries; involucral bracts ovate, usually 40-50 (-65) mm long, lacerate, the teeth 5-17, acuminate from the base and separated by rounded sinuses; calyx usually truncate, 0.7-1 cm long; petals usually yellow with a basal maroon spot, fading pinkish purple, 5-8 cm long.  Capsules 3-celled, narrowly ovoid, tapering to an acute tip, (2.5-) 3-5 cm long, pitted black punctate.  Seeds several per cell, distinct or connate, lint copious, white"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 875-876).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, disturbed areas, 10-200 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 875-876).  In Niue, it grows in most of the villages and sometimes forms quite large clumps" (Sykes, 1970; pp. 111-112).  In Guam, "occasionally seen escaped from cultivation" (Stone, 1970; p. 409).  In Fiji, "persists infrequently as a shrub or small tree" (Smith, 1981; pp. 430-431).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Ecuador and Peru; widely cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Garber 1105 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9217 (BISH)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 40)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 67)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 107)
Vouchers cited: E.Y. Hosaka 3531 (PTBG), N.L.H. Krauss 1895C (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 22137)
Taxon name on voucher: Gossypium barbadense
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ongea Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 430-431)
Voucher Cited: Bryan 421
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 430-431)
Voucher Cited: Smith 6626
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 430-431)
Voucher Cited: DA 13259
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: St. John 14707 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11079 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8508 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39548)
Taxon name on voucher: Gossypium barbadense
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 44721)
Taxon name on voucher: Gossypium barbadense
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: Grant 5067
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11665 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64937 (US)
Possibly persisting from planting.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 102
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 174)
Vouchers cited: Moore 564, BRY 26468
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.W. Moore 564 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 141
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 409)
Escaped from cultivation.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 874-876)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 874-876)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 874-876)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 874-876)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 874-876)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 874-876)
Kiribati
Kiribati
Kiribati (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R. (1987) (p. 25)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 101)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Seen in nursery.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. iii)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3685
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 9)
Not observed on this survey. "Possibly planted experimentally around Ine village, where Anderson did most of his collecting, but did not survive, although it possible could be present and not found during recent survey; previously recorded on Majuro, Kwajalein and Jaluit where it did not survive".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 105)
Presumably extirpated.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 284)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33656 (US)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 160)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 162)
Not seen or collected since 1935.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 97)
Gossypium sp.; voucher cited: MacKee 18879
Spontané
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 97)
Gossypium sp.; voucher cited: MacKee 45929
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 97)
Gossypium sp.; vouchers cited: MacKee 29348, Létocart in MacKee 37262, Cherrier in MacKee 40855
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 111-112)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170319, 170320, 170321
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 84)
Uncommon. Voucher cited: Yuncker 9858 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 43)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 369)
Cultivated experimentally and some plants remain; also about the villages of the natives.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 187-189)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 185)
As Gossypium brasiliense Macfayden, cited from Crosby.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated; below 1500 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 115)
Naturalized
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 26)
"Sparingly cultivated in whole group".


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This page was created on 10 JAN 2003 and was last updated on 6 MAY 2013.