Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Gomphrena celosioides
Mart., Amaranthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Gomphrena alba Peter

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yin hua xian

English: gomphrena weed, soft khakiweed

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or perennial herbs; stems ascending to erect, 1-2 dm long, rather sparsely branched, appressed pilose with white silky hairs.  Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, 1.5-4.5 cm long, 0.5-1.3 cm wide, upper surface subglabrous, lower surface white pilose, often densely white pilose in the leaf axils, narrowed into an indistinct petiole at base.  Flowers in terminal and axillary, cylindrical spikes 1-2 cm long and ca. 1 cm in diameter, rachis and upper part of stems densely white pilose, lower flowers deciduous after anthesis and rachis tending to elongate, sometimes resulting in a bract-bearing rachis 3-5 cm long with flowers persistent only in a terminal rounded tuft, each inflorescence subtended by a pair of leaves shorter than the inflorescence, bracts ovate, ca. 3 mm long, apex acuminate, the midrib shortly excurrent into a sharp point, bracteoles 4.5-5.5 mm long, laterally compressed, keeled, dorsal crest along the keel variously developed, confined to upper 1/3 of bracteole, often inconspicuous with 1-2 teeth, occasionally well-developed near apex of bracteole, sometimes absent or vestigial; calyx ca. 4-4.5 mm long, the lobes narrow, attenuate; ovary subglobose; stigmas 2, branches divergent or becoming erect. Utricles ca. 1.7 mm long.  Seed brown, lustrous, ca. 1.5 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 192, 1857).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "recently naturalized on O‘ahu" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 192, 1857). In Papua New Guinea, "a common plant of roadsides, and sometimes invading pastures as a weed" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 58); "a weed of dry open places, often along roads or near wharfs and airfields at low altitudes"  (Womersley, 1978; p. 37).  In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe paraissant d'introduction récente; devient assez commun à Nouméa" (MacKee, 1994; p. 12).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  South America (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 192, 1857).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 270)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 70)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Flynn 1977 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 192)
Voucher cited: K. Nagata 2730 (HLA)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 15571, MacKee 18317, MacKee 24830, MacKee 29583, MacKee 34644, MacKee 41014
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 58)
At low altitudes, mainly in areas of high rainfall.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (p. 37)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Roadsides, waste places". Hainan
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 79)
Ornamental.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guayas
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 182)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 99)
"Collected wild at Silverdale".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Roadsides, waste places".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 115)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 21 JUN 2010.