Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Gmelina arborea
Roxb., Verbenaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yun nan shi zi

English: gmelina, Malay bush-beech, white beech, white teak

Fijian: yemane

Other: yemane

Spanish: melina

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Large, rapidly growing tree, the branchlets yellowish-tomentose; leaves petiolate, the petioles 5-15 cm. long, puberulent to glabrous, the leaf blades broadly ovate, 10-25 x 7.5-18 cm., cordate or truncate at base, long-acuminate at apex, entire at margin (but sometimes toothed or lobed on young plants), tomentose or at length glabrous above, densely and persistently tomentellous beneath with stellate hairs, glanduliferous just above petiole, the lateral nerves 5-10 per side; inflorescences fulvous-tomentose throughout, the bracts linear to linear-lanceolate; calyx broadly campanulate, about 5 mm. long, 5-toothed; corolla showy, yellow to reddish or brownish, 25-40 mm. long, the tube densely pubescent without; stamens 4, exserted, one pair sometimes sterile; drupes ovoid to obovoid-pyriform, 20-25 mm. long, orange-yellow when mature, aromatic, the endocarp usually 2-celled and 2-seeded (or by abortion 1-seeded), or sometimes 3-celled and 3 seeded"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 203-205).

Habitat/ecology:  "Estimated to range from Tropical Very Dry to Wet through Subtropical Very Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones, gmelina is reported or estimated to tolerate annual precipitation of 7 to 45 dm, annual temperature of 20 to 26"C, and pH of 6 to 8. It can tolerate a 67-month dry season. Grows on many soils, acidic laterites to calcareous loams, doing poorly on thin or poor soils with hardpan, dry sands, or heavily leached acidic soils, well-drained basic alluviums." (Purdue NewCROP)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical moist forests from India, Burma, and Sri Lanka to southern China. Widely introduced as a forestry tree or for ornament and shade.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665313)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina arborea Roxb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665325)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina arborea Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 203, 205)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Taylor, M./McGregor, A./Dawson, B. (2016) (p. 417)
"The species [PIER ed.: Gmelina arborea] is apparently well adapted to seasonally dry and intermediate rainfall zones (1,700-2,000 mm with short 2-3 months dry season) such as the northern and western parts of Viti Levu, Fiji where it has become invasive in secondary and disturbed forest." (Vulnerability of Pacific Island agriculture and forestry to climate change)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 59)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: Flynn 3108 (BISH 536125, BISH 536124)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Flynn 3502 (BISH 514190), Lorence 7682 (BISH 649270)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher cited: Rock 253 (BISH 71919)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: Gay in MacKee 42362
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 78)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. Field notes.)
Single tree.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 230-231)
Roadside trees.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Sabah, Selangor
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 45)
Cultivated only

Comments:  Small area naturalized on ‘Atiu, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 2 NOV 2011.