Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Galinsoga parviflora
Carv., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: niu xi ju

English: chick weed, ciliate galinsoga, dumb-nettle, galinsoga, galinsoga-weed, gallant soldier, potato weed, potato-weed, quick weed, small-flower galinsoga, yellow weed

Japanese: hakidamegiku

Spanish: chuminca, guasco, mielcilla, pacuyuyo, rosilla chica

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Slender annual herbs 2-7 dm tall, sparsely pubescent with appressed or sometimes spreading hairs.  Leaves ovate or narrowly ovate, 2-5 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, margins serrulate or entire.  Heads 3-4 mm high, peduncles appressed pubescent or glandular villous; involucral bracts 2-3 mm long; ray florets (3) 5 (6) per head, rays white, rarely pink, 3-toothed, 1-2 mm long; pappus of ray florets absent or very reduced, that of disk florets consisting of blunt-tipped, fimbriate scales.  Achenes sparsely appressed pubescent or glabrous"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 318-320).

Description from Flora of China online.
Description from Flora of North America online.
Description from Flora of Taiwan online.

Habitat/ecology:  "The plants grow best in moist conditions and can become very numerous under irrigation or in year-round rainfall in the tropics" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 280).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in a variety of disturbed habitats, particularly urban areas, trails, open rocky sites or pastures, 0-1,800 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 318-320).  In Papua New Guinea, a "weed of gardens, cultivation and plantations"  (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 76).

Propagation:  "A prolific seeder, often producing several thousand per plant, it can complete a life cycle (germination to shedding of seeds) in as little as 50 days.  Viable seeds may be produced when the plant is only a few cm high.  These seeds may germinate readily after falling to the ground; however, germination may be retarded if the seed coat remains intact.  Light, as well as alternating temperatures, may favor germination.  Temperatures of 10° to 35° C appear to be suitable for germination" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 280).

Native range:  Southwestern US south to South American, now a cosmopolitan weed (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 318-320).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 18)
"A worldwide weed of disturbed ground". Vouchers cited: J.D. McComish 128 (NSW); M.D. Crisp 4508 & I.R.H. Telford (CBG); 1920, J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"A worldwide weed of disturbed ground". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 496 (CHR); P.S. Green 2411 (K); W.R. Sykes NI 188 (CHR); 1898, I. Robinson(NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 81)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 225)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 554)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 554)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 318-320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 318-320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 318-320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer, Perlman & Tangalin H10706 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 318-320)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2011) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H10906 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 318-320)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 76)
At altitudes from 900 to 2500 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 282)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Fields, streamsides, sparse forests. A common weed widely distributed in China".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 282)
In wasteland or on margins of farmland.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 282)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 218)
"Locally abundant in gardens and cultivated land, also waste places and pasture".
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 282)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Naturalized around farms and villages, 1,500-2,100 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Arizona, New Mexico, Texas; naturalized elsewhere


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 29 DEC 2012.