Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Funtumia elastica
Stapf., Apocynaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: si jiao shu

English: bush rubber, Ive rubber, Lagos rubber, Lagos silk rubbertree, silkrubber, West African rubbertree

French: arbre à caoutchouc

Samoan: pulu vao

Spanish: caucho africano

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A tree, up to 100 ft. high; trunk erect, cylindric; bark pale, spotted; branchlets terete, blackish when dry.  Leaves oblong or lanceolate-oblong, acuminate, attenuate at the base, 5-9 in. long, 1 1/4-2 1/2 in. broad, undulate, quite glabrous, foveolate in the leaf axils; secondary nerves 7-11 on each side, oblique; veins inconspicuous; petiole 2-5 in. long.  Cymes shortly peduncled, many-flowered, dense, glabrous; peduncle up to 3 in. long.  Calyx 2-2 1/4 in. long; sepals very broad, ovate or rotundate; intracalycular glands usually 2 with each sepal.  Corolla white or yellowish, conical in bud, up to 6 in long; tube constricted above the base, 3 1/2-4 in. long, glabrous without; lobes oblong, obtuse, 2 1/2-3 in. long.  Stamens inserted below the middle of the corolla-tube.  Disc 5-partite; segments crenate, slightly exceeding the ovary.  Follicles oblong-clavate when closed, obtuse or rotundate at the apex, woody, obscurely keeled along the sides, 6 in. long.  Seeds 6-9 in. long; awn 1 1/2-2 3/4 in. long, naked to the middle, hairs up to 2 1/2 in. long"  (Thiselton-Dyer, 1904; p. 191).

"Medium-sized tree with glossy opposite leaves, milky sap and paired long woody pods bearing numerous plumed seeds..."  (Whistler, 1988; p. 7).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Wind-borne "parachute" seeds.

Native range:  Africa; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Bristol 2273
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (pp. 5-6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28800)
Taxon name on voucher: Funtumia elastica Stapf.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1989) (voucher ID: BISH 588406)
Taxon name on voucher: Funtumia elastica Stapf.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: MacDaniels 1113
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (pp. 5-6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28521)
Taxon name on voucher: Funtumia elastica Stapf.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28981)
Taxon name on voucher: Funtumia elastica Stapf.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83830)
Taxon name on voucher: Funtumia elastica Stapf.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 130554)
Taxon name on voucher: Funtumia elastica Stapf.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 439286)
Taxon name on voucher: Funtumia elastica Stapf.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 439287)
Taxon name on voucher: Funtumia elastica Stapf.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in S. Yunnan.

Comments:  Invading the understory and forming monospecific stands on the western half of Upolu (Whistler, 1992; p. 175). Also present and invading on Savai‘i.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 MAY 2013.