Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Foeniculum vulgare
Mill., Apiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Foeniculum dulce Mill.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: anis hinoho

Chinese: hui xiang

English: aniseed-weed, bitter fennel, common fennel, fennel

Fijian: pan mauri

French: fenouil, fenouil commun

Japanese: fenneru, uikyou

Mangarevan: pine

Maori (Cook Islands): taretare, taretare, taretare, taretare tui-‘ei

Niuean: taletale

Other: sonf

Spanish: eneldo, hinojo, lecherillo

Tahitian: apiti

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herb, erect, glaucous, to 20 cm tall, highly aromatic; leaves to 20 cm long, finely dissected, ultimate segments filiform; umbels terminal, 5-15 cm wide; umbellets with 20-50 tiny flowers, these on filiform pedicels; fruit 4-9 mm long, half as wide or less, grooved"  (Stone, 1970; p. 462).

"Stout perennial herbs 9-12 dm tall.  Leaves glaucous to dark green, ovate to triangular, ca. 30 cm long, ca. 40 cm wide, pinnately decompound, the ultimate divisions filiform, 4-40 mm long, ca. 0.5 mm wide, petioles 7-14 cm long, wholly sheathing.  Peduncles 1.5-6.5 cm long, rays 15-40, spreading-ascending in flower, ascending to suberect in fruit, unequal, pedicels 2-10 mm long, subequal.  Fruit 3.5-4 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, ribs acute"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 204).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and woodland, coastal scrub, riparian habitats, rock outcrops, disturbed sites.  Within the native range, this palnt is found in coastal scrub, grassland, rocky places and in disturbed places.  The plant forms dense mats that reduce species richness and alter the composition and structure of native grassland communities.  It successfully competes with native perennials in coastal sage communities.  Its success may relate to its ability to exploit resources during the summer when most species are not active"  (Weber, 2003; p. 171).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized along roadsides, in pastures, and other open sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 204).  In Fiji, "occasionally cultivated near sea level and sparingly naturalized in shady waste places" (Smith, 1985; p. 659).  In Niue, "more or less adventive near houses" (Sykes, 1970; p. 209).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions: Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m. Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall. Short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month). Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months. Precipitations of 400 - 800 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun. Level areas or slopes facing north. Some shadow. Some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40 % of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern Europe and northern Africa to southwestern Asia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 465, 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 465, 553)
Voucher cited: Danton B(575)538
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 659)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 653
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 659)
Voucher cited: DA 2603
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: St. John 14727 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 286)
Voucher cited: Moore 680
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1927) (voucher ID: PTBG 45082)
Taxon name on voucher: Foeniculum vulgare
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 5)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 462)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 204)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 204)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 204)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 204)
Voucher cited: Forbes 131.M (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 204)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 98)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 137)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 20952, MacKee 23833, MacKee 25574
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 127)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 147)
Eradicated 1969.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 209)
Voucher cited: CHR 168674
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 93)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10116 (BISH)
"Occasional roadside weed".
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 239)
Planted here and there about houses but nowhere spontaneous.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated and adventive; 200-2600 m, throughout China.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 206)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 127)
"Waste places, riverbeds, coastal cliffs, particularly well established within cities and along railway embankments".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  "Seedlings and smaller plants can be dug out, the crowns and most of the taproots must be removed to prevent regrowth".

Chemical:  "Effective herbicides are glyphosate, triclopyr, or 2,4-D ester"  (Weber, 2003; p. 171).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 4 MAY 2013.