Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Fleurya interrupta
Gaudich., Urticaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Laportea interrupta (L.) Chew; Urtica interrupta L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: palilolia

Chinese: hong xiao ma

English: Hawaiian wood-nettle, hen's nettle

Fijian: salato, salato ni koro, salato vutivali

Kwara‘ae: akoako fuluma

Marquesan: auokaoka, kenae, onaona, onaona, puera

Niuean: ogoogo, ongoongo

Other: nanggalat

Pohnpeian: shoh-mahl, soumwehl

Samoan: ogo ogo, ogoogo, ogoogo, ogoogo toto, ogoogo toto, ongoongo, ono ono, vao mageso, vao mageso

Tahitian: huriaeo, iriaeo, iriaio, urieo

Tongan: hogohogo, hongohongo, ngohongoho, nogonogo

Wallisian: mangeo

Yapese: yoyol

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Genus: "Usually annual herbs, the aerial branches and often the leaf blades with stinging or prurient hairs, the stipules comparatively small, connate into an axillary, bifid scale; leaves alternate, the blades chartaceous, ovate, 3-nerved from base and also pinnate-nerved distally, dentate or serrate, with linear cystoliths on upper surface; inflorescences axillary, composed of flower clusters combined into lax, bracteate, cymose panicles, these usually unisexual, the flowers often sharply reflexed; male flowers sessile or pedicellate, with 4 or usually 5 tepals, these ovate or lanceolate, subvalvate, the stamens 4 or usually 5, with long, reflexed filaments, the rudimentary ovary globose or subclavate; female flowers pedicellate, with 4 free tepals, these imbricate, unequal in pairs, the abaxial one sometimes hooded, the staminodes absent, the ovary straight, becoming oblique, the style apical but becoming lateral, the stigma subulate, obliquely ovate or linear, short-papillose, rarely trifid, persistent; achene small, obliquely ovoid, strongly laterally compressed, deflexed, pitted and verrucose, marginate, exserted from the slightly enlarged perianth, the seed with very little endosperm, the cotyledons broad, the fruiting pedicel long and winged"  (Smith, 1981; p. 215).

Species:  "Flower-clusters remote, combined into interrupted pseudo-spikes 3-30 cm long; lowest clusters usually on short side-shoots; male flowers: tepals 4, white or pink, with a green midvein, sparsely hairy; female flowers: pedicel widened above the articulation; tepals at first subequal, the 2 lateral (inner) ones considerably enlarged afterwards; stigmas 3, at first equal, central one later elongate; achene not recurved, tuberculate, 1 1/2-1 3/4 mm long.  Leaves ovate, subcordate, truncate or broadly cuneate at base, crenate-serrate or dentate, 2-12 cm by 1-8 cm, (dry) with numerous distinct cystoliths beneath; petiole 1/2-10 cm.  Erect or decumbent at base and rooting" (Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1965; p. 39).

"Small, un- or few-branched slightly fleshy herb, usually puberulent with more or less irritant hairs; stem 20-80 cm tall; leaves ovate-acuminate, 6-9 cm long, 5-6 cm wide, on slender petioles up to 8 cm long; blades rounded to subcordate at base; margins coarsely serrate.  Inflorescence axillary, pedunculate, spicate; flowers tiny, green, 4-merous; fruit a cordate achene" (Stone, 1970; p. 256).

Habitat/ecology:  "Uncommon in waste places and around houses" (Whistler, 1988; p. 38). "Waste places, road-sides, gardens, fields" (Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1965; p. 39).

In Fiji, occurs "from near sea level to about 525 m as a weed of villages, roadsides, waste places, pastures, and cultivated areas, sometimes being found along forest trails or on hillsides" (Smith, 1981; pp. 215-216).  In Hawai‘i, "an uncommon garden weed" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1299).  In Niue, "seen only occasionally in plantations and waste places" (Sykes, 1970; p. 210).  In New Guinea, "a plant of partial shade; a weed of gardens and house-yards, and sometimes in cocoa and rubber plantations; not aggressive and only numerous where other weeds have been suppressed. Mostly at low altitudes, but found to 700 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 156). In Tonga, "an occasional weed of plantations" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 102).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Eastern and southeastern Asia, Australia; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN). Although it "now has a very wide distribution, from Africa to Japan and China and eastward to Queensland and into the Pacific as far as Hawai‘i, its native area is questionable; probably southeastern Asia is a reasonable guess.  It...was almost certainly an inadvertent aboriginal introduction throughout the Pacific portion of its range." (Smith, 1981; pp. 215-216)  "An aboriginal introduction to Polynesia" (Whistler, 1988; p. 38). Fosberg et al. (1979; p. 60) list as native to Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Garber 1001, Garber 1013
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 36)
Vouchers cited: Garber 1001 (BISH), Garber 1013 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Garber 576, Harris 261, Harris 320
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 36)
Vouchers cited: Garber 576 (BISH), W. Harris 320 (BISH), W. Harris 261 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 10370)
Taxon name on voucher: Laportea interrupta
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 26896)
Taxon name on voucher: Laportea interrupta
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 99)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 43952)
Taxon name on voucher: Laportea interrupta
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 48403)
Taxon name on voucher: Laportea interrupta
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 60)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 60)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 60)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 82)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 789 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 139)
As Laportea interrupta (L.) Chew. Voucher cited: A. Dores 164 (BISH, NY, PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 46152)
Taxon name on voucher: Laportea interrupta
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 60)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 215-216)
Voucher cited: DA 2969
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mbengga Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 215-216)
Voucher cited: Weiner 72-7-14C
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 215-216)
Voucher cited: Milne 109
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Nairai Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 215-216)
Voucher cited: Milne 156
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 215-216)
Voucher cited: Smith 7480
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 215-216)
Vouchers cited: Gillespie 4704, DA 8393, DA 5739
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 215-216)
Vouchers cited: DA 14364, Bierhorst F202
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 215-216)
Vouchers cited: DA 14194, Greenwood 147, Gillespie 2577, Smith 7244
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew. Voucher cited: J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9365 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew. Voucher cited: J. Florence 6694 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 11517)
Taxon name on voucher: Laportea interrupta
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence & L. Dunn 8988 (PAP)
Adventice. Locally common, naturalized.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39369)
Taxon name on voucher: Laportea interrupta
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10322 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10476 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 222-224)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 149)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Laportea interrupta (C. Linnaeus) W.-L. Chew.
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 256)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4388 (GUAM), Stone 4415 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 60)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 151)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1299)
Adventive.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 151)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 60)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy (year unknown)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 137)
Voucher cited: Schmid 2753 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 137)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2032
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 137)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard 1228, Franc 2080
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 38)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 62)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 156)
Mostly at low altitudes but found to 700 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 163)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 75)
In cultivated areas, chiefly in disturbed soil in and about towns at low altitudes; a weed, probably introduced.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 11620)
Taxon name on voucher: Laportea interrupta
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 38)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 84)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 46
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Soakai 641
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 102)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 561
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Crosby 167
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 55)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Woodroffe 195 (CHR), Woodroffe 133 (CHR)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 38)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Disturbed, moist places of dense forests, streams; 600-1000 m". SW Yunnan
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 53)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Disturbed, moist places of dense forests, streams; 600-1000 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 13)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 16)


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This page was created on 17 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 2 MAY 2013.