Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Flemingia strobilifera
(L.) Aiton & Aiton f., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Flemingia fruticulosa Wall. ex Benth.; Hedysarum strobiliferum L.; Moghania strobilifera (L.) A. St.-Hil. ex Kuntze

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: qiu sui qian jin ba

English: luck plant, wild hops

French: sainfoin du bengale

Palauan: besungelaiei, pesungel a iei

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrub to 2 m tall; stipules lanceolate, 3-4 mm long, striate; petioles 1-2 cm long; leaflet 1, obovate to ovate, 9.5-15 cm long, 4-9 cm wide, acute apically, truncate to cuneate beneath, entire, revolute; inflorescence to ca 15 cm long; pedicels 2-3 mm long; flowers 1 or 2 per node, the bracts obovate to cordate, 1-2 cm long, 8-12 mm wide, papery, persistent, enclosing the flowers; calyx 4-5 mm long; petals creamy, light yellow, or pinkish to purple; banner orbicular, 5-6 mm long, 7-8 mm wide, slightly clawed; pods oblong, inflated, 6-14 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, dehiscent, the valves twisting; seeds 2, ovoid, 3 mm long, brown-black with red mottling."  (Welsh, 1998)

 "Habit a small shrub 1-1.5 m, leaves unifoliate, leaflets ovate to elliptic, gland-dotted abaxially; stipules striate; inflorescence paniculate, 10-20 cm long, peduncle zig-zag, branches strobiform, with whitish green flowers and pale green fruits enclosed by pale green, persistent bracts that turn a golden brown color upon drying" (Lorence et al., 1995; p. 37).

Habitat/ecology:  Abandoned pastures and other disturbed areas, often forming thickets. Invasive in French Polynesia. In New Caledonia, "rarement planté mais assez répandu en peuplements denses isolés en terrains défrichés" (MacKee, 1994; p. 84).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern, eastern and southeastern Asia to the Philippines (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665044)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665047)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 111)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 438055)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Mesic habitats"
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 8496 (PAP), K.R. Wood, S.P. Perlman & J.-P. Luce 6357 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27741)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) St. Hil. ex Ktze.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 41188)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11649 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643293)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Mesic habitats"
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10577 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10577 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642298)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 152)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 62692
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4693 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 111)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
"Potential invader".
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 438050)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 438051)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 438052)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649427)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649432)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000252)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000253)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1986) (voucher ID: PTBG 23795)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 37)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: T. Flynn et al. 2591 (PTBG), T. Flynn et al. 2716 (BISH, BM, F. K, MEXU, MO, PTBG, RSA, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 139)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Assez répandue en peuplements denses isolés en terrains défrichés.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 84)
Vouchers cited: de Touzalin s.n., J. Bernier 55 s.loc., MacMillan 5202, Mackee 13126, Mackee 31613, Mackee 31619, Mackee 31979, Pilecki in Mackee 35675, Mackee 42356
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 10868)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 545740)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1260)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) R. Br.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 111)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Lorence 8225 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 15)
Possibly native.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649814)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 28066)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) R. Br.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 111)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 428471)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1975) (voucher ID: BNM 10065)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) R. Br.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 111)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 138048)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 438049)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 660704)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) Aiton & Aiton f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 52)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera (L.) R. Br.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 258)
Common, particularly on dry soil; lacking in swampy places.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 317)
In the settled areas, in open dry waste places, locally very abundant; probablyl introduced.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 6-7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 6-7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 6-7)
Voucher: Flynn 6823 (PTBG, US, NY)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 246)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia strobilifera
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 6-7)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Mountain slopes; 200-1600 m".
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 43)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Mountain slopes; 200-1600 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)

Comments:  This species and F. macrophylla show every indication of becoming invasive species on Pacific islands.

Invasive on Tahaa and Raiatea (Society Islands) and naturalized along roadsides on Nuku Hiva (Marquesas), French Polynesia (Jean-Yves Meyer, pers. com.). Naturalizing in Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001). Naturalized specimens seen on Upolu, Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Also reported invasive in Jamaica

Additional information:
Additional online information about Flemingia strobilifera is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Flemingia strobilifera as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Flemingia strobilifera may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM52(Blackburn 219).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1975. Voucher specimen #BNM10065(Otobed, D.O. P-10065).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1978. Voucher specimen #BNM1260(Canfield, J.E. 411).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 438051 (Swezey, O.H.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1945. Voucher specimen #BISH 438052 (Conover, J.T. 567).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 438055 (Wong, C.C.Y. 365).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 10868 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 1598).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 138048 (Fosberg, F.R. 32116).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 438049 (Fosberg, F.R. 32139).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 660704 (Fosberg, F.R. 32116).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 545740 (McMillan, C. 5202).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 438050 (Fosberg, F.R. 35289).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 428471 (Blackburn, B.S. 219).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 649427 (Herbst, D.R. 7102).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 649432 (Herbst, D.R. 7097).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000252 (Herbst, D.R. 7097).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000253 (Herbst, D.R. 7102).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 642298 (Florence 10577).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 665044 (Sykes, W.R. 474749).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 665047 (Sykes, W.R. 474394A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643293 (Florence 11649).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 649814 (Raulerson, L. LR 26355).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Palau. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 44 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. 1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 41:19-58.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG246(Tim Flynn 6823).

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. 2013. Flora of Micronesia. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Wester, Lyndon. 1992. Origin and distribution of adventive flowering plants in Hawai‘i. In: Stone, Charles P.; Smith, Clifford W. and Tunison, J. Timothy. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research. University of Hawaii, Cooperative National Park Research Studies Unit, Honolulu. University of Hawaii Press. .

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 2 MAY 2013.