Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Flemingia macrophylla
(Willdenow) Merrill, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Crotalaria macrophylla Willd.; Flemingia congesta Roxb. ex W. T. Aiton; Moghania macrophylla (Willd.) Kuntze

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da ye qian jin ba

Japanese: enoki-mame

Tagalog: laclay-guinan

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Shrub 0.6-2.4 m high; branches 3-angled; leaflets lanceolate to narrowly elliptical, acuminate, up to 30 cm long and 9 cm broad; racemes axillary, 5-15 cm long; bracts linear to lanceolate, 15-20 mm long; calyx-segments unequal, 9 mm long overall; corolla rosy-purple, the standard petal 9 mm long; pod 13 mm long."  (Adams, 1972)(Genus) "Shrubs or herbs, erect or prostrate.  Leaves stipulate; blades exstipellate, digitately 3-foliolate or 1-foliolate; leaflet blades gland-doted below.  Inflorescences densely spicate-racemose or paniculate, bracts foliaceous or dry, persistent or deciduous, bracteoles absent; calyx lobes subequal or lowest longer; vexillary stamen free, remainder connate, anthers uniform; style glabrous.  Pods turgid, dehiscent, continuous within; seeds estrophiolate.  (Species)  Erect, up to ca 2 m tall.  Leaflets 3, blades ovate to oblong, apex shortly acuminate, 8-15 cm X 4-7 cm, hairy on nerves and veins below.  Inflorescences dense spike-like racemes; calyx 0.7-1.3 cm long; corolla white to pink or yellowish, up to ca 1.4 cm long.  Pods ca 1.2 cm long"  (Stanley and Ross, 1983; vol. 1, p. 326).

Habitat/ecology:  "Flemingia macrophylla can be found from sea level up to 2000 m altitude, within a wide range of rainfall patterns, from sub-humid to per-humid (1100-2850 mm/year).  It can tolerate fairly long dry spells and is capable of surviving on very poorly drained soils with waterlogging.  Its natural habitat is along watercourses, both on clay and lateritic soils, as well as under drier conditions such as in fields invested with Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel.  It tolerates shade and poor, acid soils with a high content of soluble aluminum"  (Hanum &Van der Maesen, 1997; p. 145).

In New Caledonia, "peu commun mais parfois planté comme brise-vent dans les pépinières" (MacKee, 1994; p. 84). Naturalized along roadsides and in low-lying places in Jamaica, 400-1200 feet (Adams, 1972; p. 355).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern, eastern and southeastern Asia; also cultivated and sometimes naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 6, 12)
Voucher: Flynn 6613 (PTBG)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1999) (voucher ID: BISH 662828)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia macrophylla (Willdenow) Merrill
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 292)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia macrophylla
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Single cultivated plant.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24908)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia macrophylla
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 93)
Voucher cited: S. perlman 21465A (PTBG)
Invasive
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 254)
Vouchers cited: DA 14347, Meebold 16658
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 34240)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia macrophylla (Willdenow) Merrill
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 155088)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia macrophylla (Willdenow) Merrill
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 18 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37290)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED135 (BISH)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 84)
Vouchers cited: Suprin in Mackee 43389
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 84)
Vouchers cited: Mackee 29468, Mackee 29592, Mackee 31225, Pilecki in Mackee 35674
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 13)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hanum/I. Faridah/Van der Maesen, L.J.G, eds. (1997) (p. 144)
Naturalized.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 317)
Occasional in thickets at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 6954 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 275)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia macrophylla
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 76)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 6-7)
MAF Agricultural Station. Voucher: Flynn 6838 (PTBG, US)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 252)
Taxon name on voucher: Flemingia macrophylla
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (pp. 6-7)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Disturbed meadows, roadsides, forest margins; 200-1800 m".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 146)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Disturbed meadows, roadsides, forest margins; 200-1800 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.

Comments:  This species and F. strobilifera show every indication of becoming invasive species on Pacific islands.

Planted on Tutuila, American Samoa, and showing indications of naturalizing (Space & Flynn, 2000). Naturalizing along the highway west of A‘opo on Savai‘i, Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002), and along roadsides in Rarotonga and Mangaia, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Additional information:
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.

Additional online information about Flemingia macrophylla is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Flemingia macrophylla as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Flemingia macrophylla may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Adams, C. D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. 848 pp.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 155088 (Meebold, A. 16658).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 34240 (Qoro, I. 14347).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1999. Voucher specimen #BISH 662828 (Flynn, T. 6613).

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Hanum/I. Faridah/Van der Maesen, L.J.G, eds. 1997. PROSEA : Plant resources of south-east Asia 11, auxiliary plants. LIPI Press, Jakarta, Indonesia. 385 pp. ISBN 979-799-093-1.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG37290(Art Whistler W 4841).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1999. Voucher specimen #PTBG292(Tim Flynn 6613).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG252(Tim Flynn 6838).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG275(Tim Flynn 6954).

Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby. 2012. New plant records from the Big Island for 2010-2011. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Part II: Plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 113:65-74.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Stanley, T. D./Ross, E. M. 1989. Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Misc. Pub. 81020. 3 Volumes.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 2 MAY 2013.