Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Flacourtia rukam
Zoll. & Moritzi, Salicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Flacourtia euphlebia Merr.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da ye ci li mu

English: governor's plum, Indian plum, Indian prune, rukam

Fijian: filimoto

French: prunier café, prunier de Chine, prunier malgache

Palauan: chemechong, chemechong, emechong

Pohnpeian: rukam

Rotuman: firmoto

Samoan: filimoto, filimoto, filimoto

Spanish: ciruela de Madagascar

Tongan: filimoto, filimoto, milo‘uta

Wallisian: filimoto

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A tree 5-15 m high (to 20 m where indigenous), with a trunk to 40 cm in diameter, often thorny on trunk and branches, cultivated in gardens and experimental plots near sea level.  The sepals are greenish yellow, the anthers yellow, and the fruits maturing pink to dark red or purplish" (Smith, 1981; pp. 637-639).

Habitat/ecology:  Trees occur in lowland rainforest from sea level up to about 1600 m.

Propagation:  Trees are mostly self sown. Root suckers are commonly produced.

Native range:  "Malesia, but rare in the Moluccas and New Guinea, and not indigenous in southeastern Asia as noted by various authors; the species is widely cultivated and often naturalized in other tropical areas" (Smith, 1981; pp. 637-639).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 160)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (pp. 52-53)
"Abundant on all of the islands". Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9520 (BISH), Yuncker 9464 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 144858)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 144875)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 160)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (pp. 52-53)
"Abundant on all of the islands".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island native
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 50)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 266)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 41708)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35374)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34798)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 160)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (pp. 52-53)
"Abundant on all of the islands". Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9063, Yuncker 9062, Yuncker 9163, Garber 646, Garber 776
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 144865)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 144870)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 144876)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 144877)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 144878)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34604)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 160)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (pp. 67-68)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 32191)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 144859)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 144862)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 144866)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 144868)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1920) (voucher ID: BISH 144873)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 422305)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430160)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430534)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 698066)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 144912)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 144924)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 144925)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 144927)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980)
var. micronesica
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 15)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 144911)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 144913)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 698063)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980)
var. micronesica
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 15)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 144922)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980)
var. micronesica
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 15)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 11901)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980)
var. micronesica
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 15)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 11900)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 698062)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 698064)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 698065)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980)
var. micronesica
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 1542 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 134)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence 7920 (PBG, US), F. Sohl 71 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 822a (BISH), M. Takamatsu 822 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 15)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 11884)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 144910)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21200)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 43754)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 639)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 610607)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618552)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 638040)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 637, 639)
Vouchers cited: DA 5524, DA 12175, DA 1566, DA 2633, DA 12996, DA 1502, MacDaniels 1126
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 14606)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 14609)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 144904)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 48)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 174)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980)
var. micronesica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 128612)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 757)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Z. & M.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1223)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Z. & M.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 14)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 144923)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 650478)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 651084)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 651177)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2006) (voucher ID: BNM 903067)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 174)
var. micronesica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 14)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 144920)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 428388)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 361)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Z. & M.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 48159)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 174)
var. micronesica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 14)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 428614)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 174)
var. micronesica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 14)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 174)
var. micronesica
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 14)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 425841)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam var. micronesica Fosberg & Sachet
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Chelbacheb Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 610728)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Mecherchar (Eil Malk) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. micronesica
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeremdiu Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4527)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. var. Micronesica Fosb. & Sach.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerukuid (Ngerukeuid, Seventy) Islands   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. micronesica
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 174)
var. micronesica
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 14)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9532)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. var. Micronesica Fosb. & Sach.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 383)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Rare.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 113)
In forests at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1905) (voucher ID: BISH 144874)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28907)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28996)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 77939)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83888)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 144860)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 144861)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1923) (voucher ID: BISH 144863)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 144864)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 144867)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 144869)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 144871)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 144872)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 145139)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417490)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417679)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417723)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 6219)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 639)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Santa Isabel (Bughotu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 144908)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 76)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 639)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Hurlimann 665, Buelow 1994, Whistler 6327
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Hurlimann 336, Kirch 343, Buelow 1060, Buelow 1099
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 191)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 336
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 429072)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Hurlimann 443, Buelow 1289, Whistler 6253
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Erromango Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 406195)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 639)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Evergreen broad-leaved forests; below 2000 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 102)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 43)
Vulnerable
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Evergreen broad-leaved forests; below 2000 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also naturalized.
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Characterized as moderately invasive in Rarotonga, Cook Islands (Meyer, 2000; p. 89). Widely naturalized in Rotuma, Fiji, and in Tonga, Futuna and Samoa (Smith, 1981; pp. 637-639). Scattered specimens but not a problem as an invader in American Samoa (Olin Colin Steele, personal communication).

F. rukam var. micronesica Fosb. & Sachet is native to Micronesia and is found in the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk (Moen, Dublon, Tol, Fefan), Pohnpei) and the Republic of Palau (Koror, Ngarakabesang, Aulupse'el, Urukthapel, Peleliu, Angaur) (Fosberg et al., 1979; p. 174). Listed as present but not invasive in these locations by Swarbrick (1997). Swarbrick also lists it as being present on Guam.

F. jangomas (Lour.) Rauschel is reported by Cronk and Fuller (1995; p. 241) to be a problem species in the Cook Islands while F. indica (Burm.f.) Merr. [=F. ramontchi L'Herit] is reported to be invasive in Florida (US).

Flacourtia indica is cultivated in Hawai‘i (Staples et al., 2000; p. 65).

Additional information:
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.

Additional online information about Flacourtia rukam is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Flacourtia rukam as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Flacourtia rukam may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1970. Voucher specimen #BNM361(Salsedo 307).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1979. Voucher specimen #BNM757(Canfield 757).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1979. Voucher specimen #BNM1223(Canfield, J.E. 766).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1991. Voucher specimen #BNM9532(Herbst, Stemmerman & Canfield 9532).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2006. Voucher specimen #BNM903067(Ngirchobong, Gemma D. GN 903067).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2007. Voucher specimen #BNM4527(collector unknown 4527).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 145139 (Reinecke 274).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 610607 (Fiji Dept. Agr. 18809).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1905. Voucher specimen #BISH 144874 (Vaupel 219).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1920. Voucher specimen #BISH 144873 (Setchell, W.A. 262).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 144865 (Garber, D.W. 646).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 144867 (Eames, A.J. 209).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 144871 (Eames, A.J. 120).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1922. Voucher specimen #BISH 144870 (Garber, D.W. 776).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1923. Voucher specimen #BISH 144863 (Swezey 233).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 144866 (Garber, D.W. 920).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 144861 (MacDaniels, L.H. 1123).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 144904 (MacDaniels, L.H. 1126).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 144860 (Christophersen, E. 545).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 144864 (Christophersen, E. 321).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 144869 (Christophersen, E. 341).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 144872 (Christophersen, E. 64).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 144920 (Kanehira, R. 343).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 32191 (Mitchell, D. 570).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 144908 (Brass, L.J. 3163).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 144923 (Hosokawa, T. 6758).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 11900 (Takamatsu, M. 245).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 144911 (Takamatsu, M. 162).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 698064 (Takamatsu, M. 245).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 698065 (Takamatsu, M. 245).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 11884 (Takamatsu, M. 822).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 11901 (Takamatsu, M. 39).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 144910 (Takamatsu, M. 822A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 144912 (Takamatsu, M. 6).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 144913 (Takamatsu, M. 51).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 144922 (Hosokawa, T. 8385).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 144924 (Hosokawa, T. 8319).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 144925 (Hosokawa, T. 8407).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 144927 (Hosokawa, T. 8510).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 14606 (collector unknown 1566).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 14609 (Parham, B.E. 2633).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 618552 (St.John, H. 19126).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 144858 (Yuncker, T.G. 9464).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 144868 (Yuncker, T.G. 9401A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 144875 (Yuncker, T.G. 9520).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 144876 (Yuncker, T.G. 9062).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 144877 (Yuncker, T.G. 9163).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 144878 (Yuncker, T.G. 9063).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 428614 (Fosberg 25668).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 698063 (Fosberg, F.R. 24544A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 128612 (Fosberg, F.R. 31994).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 144859 (Wisner, A.W.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1961. Voucher specimen #BISH 144862 (Comstock, J.A. 1).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1961. Voucher specimen #BISH 698066 (Comstock, J.A. 1).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 425841 (Fosberg, F.R. 47443).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 698062 (Evans, M. 1268).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28907 (Bristol, M.L. 2380).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28996 (Bristol, M.L. 2472).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 406195 (Chew We-Lek 132).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 77939 (Fasavalu, I. 5(a)).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 83888 (Whistler, W.A. W 254).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417490 (Whistler, W.A. W 1058).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417679 (Whistler, W.A. W 628).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417723 (Whistler, W.A. W 664).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 430160 (Whistler, W.A. W 3114).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 429072 (Kirch, P.V. 343).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 430534 (Whistler, W.A. W 3633).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 422305 (Spence, G. 466).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 428388 (Shearard, D.A. 98).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 610728 (Herbst, D.R. 9532).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 638040 (McClatchey, W.C. 90).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 650478 (Slappy, S. LR26476).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 651084 (Victor, S. LR 26685).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 651177 (Victor, S. LR 26685).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. 2001. Plant invaders. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. 241 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1980. Flora of Micronesia. Part 4. Caprifoliaceae, Compositae. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 46: 1-71.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1980. Systematic Studies of Micronesian Plants. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 45. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. 45 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1989. Voucher specimen #PTBG6219(Tim Flynn 3720).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1993. Voucher specimen #PTBG41708(Art Whistler 9222).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1999. Voucher specimen #PTBG266(Tim Flynn 6577).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG35374(David H. Lorence 8719).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG34604(David H. Lorence 8523).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG34798(David H. Lorence 8759).

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. 2003. Botanical and ethnobotanical inventories of the National Park of American Samoa. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii and Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, Department of Botany, University of Hawaii. 91 pp.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Setchell, William Albert. 1924. American Samoa; part I. Vegetation of Tutuila Island. part II. Ethnobotany of the Samoans. part III. Vegetation of Rose Atoll. The Carnegie Institution of Washington. 275 pp. + illus.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers No. 65. 35 pp.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. 2013. Flora of Micronesia. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Whistler, W. A. 1980. The vegetation of eastern Samoa. Allertonia 2:45-90.

Whistler, W. A. 1984. Annotated list of Samoan plant names. Economic Botany 38:464.489.

Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1945. Plants of the Manua Islands. Bishop Mus. Bull. 184. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 73 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 JAN 2008.