Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ficus religiosa
L., Moraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: pu ti shu

English: bo tree, peepul tree, sacred fig

French: arbre de Dieu, figuier de pagodes

Hindi: bodh tree, pipal tree

Spanish: higuera de agua

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees, 15-25 m tall, d.b.h. 30-50 cm, epiphytic when young, crown wide when mature. Bark gray, smooth or longitudinally ± fissured. Branchlets grayish brown, sparsely pubescent when young. Stipules ovate, small, apex acute. Petiole slender, as long as or longer than leaf blade, articulate; leaf blade triangular-ovate, 9-17 x 8-12 cm, leathery, abaxially green, adaxially dark green and shiny, base broadly cuneate to ± cordate, margin entire or undulate, apex acute to caudate with a 2-5 cm cauda; basal lateral veins 2, secondary veins 5-7 on each side of midvein. Figs axillary on leafy branchlets, paired or solitary, red when mature, globose to depressed globose, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, smooth; peduncle 4-9 mm; involucral bracts ovate. Male, gall, and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: few, near apical pore, sessile; calyx 2- or 3-lobed, margin revolute; stamen 1; filament short. Gall flowers: pedicellate; calyx 3- or 4-lobed; ovary globose, smooth; style short; stigma enlarged, 2-lobed. Female flowers: sessile; calyx 4-lobed, broadly lanceolate; ovary globose, smooth; style thin; stigma narrow"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Pakistan to Vietnam, cultivated elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 55)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: DA 13271
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 26)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED129 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 531687)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus religiosa L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2008) (pp. 7-8)
Voucher cited: A. Lau & D. Frohlich 2007101901 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 102)
Voucher cited: MacKee 14638
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 63)
Cultivated.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 41)
Naturalised
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Miami-Dade County Dept. of Planning and Zoning, 2010).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 25 OCT 2010 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.