Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ficus microcarpa
L.f., Moraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: nunu

Chinese: rong shu

Chuukese: au, au

English: Chinese banyan, curtain fig, Hill's weeping fig, Indian laurel fig, Indian-laurel, laurel fig, Malay banyan, Malayan banyan, small-fruit fig

French: arbre de l'Intendance

Japanese: gajumaru

Palauan: lulk

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Variable in habit, often epiphytic, subscandent shrubs when young, in maturity spreading evergreen trees with large branches and numerous aerial roots hanging from the trunk and branches, these sometimes reaching the soil to form pillar-like roots.  Leaves variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate, usually 5-8 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, glabrous, margins entire, petioles 0.6-2 cm long.  Synconia sessile, arising among or just below the leaves, depressed-globose, 6-10 mm in diameter, subtended by 3 broadly ovate, more or less persistent bracts"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 925-926, 1885).

Habitat/ecology:  Dry to moist forests, open areas, cliffs up to 3000 ft. elevation in Hawai‘i. Requires a pollinating wasp, Euprestina verticillata , to reproduce. (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 925-926). Meyer (2000; p. 93) lists as a moderate invader of dry to mesic sites in the Society Islands.  "Besides shading with its broad canopy, it is a threat to host plants.  Banyan roots are very destructive to infrastructures: pavement, home foundations, irrigation structures"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Propagation:  The synconia are bird-dispersed. A species-specific wasp (Euprestina verticillata Waterst.) is necessary for pollination.

Native range:  Ceylon to India, southern China, Ryukyu Islands, Australia and New Caledonia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
var latifolia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1822 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 162310)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 162280)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 162449)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 162308)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 162314)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 162377)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 572818)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 20)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 158)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64866 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 158)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 158)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 187)
Voucher cited: Florence 4467
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 158)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5493 (PAP), J. Florence 6969 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492362)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 542850)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 558173)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 251-252)
Var. saffordii (Merrill) Corner. Vouchers cited: Stone 3890 (GUAM), Stone 4413 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 924-926)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: D. Lorence 7613 (BISH, PTBG, US)
Widespread and abundantly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100623 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 924-926)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Hughes 62 (BISH)
Naturalized in gulches in disturbed lowland areas.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 924-926)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 280)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 10)
"Rare; two trees observed, one in field by school, another in a private yard nearby; (although this species receives a somewhat high rating as an invasive, spread is unlikely in the Marshalls without the wasps and birds needed in typical dissemination)".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll uncertain if native
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 101)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 110)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0515200903
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 102)
Voucher cited: MacKee 40682
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 162309)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 162311)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 572819)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Both var. microcarpa and var. latifolia (Fosberg et al., 1979).
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 162306)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 429438)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. latifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 34)
var. latifolia (Miq.) Corner; voucher cited: Lorence 8255 (PTBG); var microcarpa, voucher cited: Flynn 6443 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1959) (voucher ID: BNM 536)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa var. Latifolia (Miq.) Corner
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1291)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa var. latifolia (Miq.) Corner
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 24088)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L. f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 27578)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L. f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngedobel? Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
var latifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 162307)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 162305)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
var latifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes and voucher.)
Voucher: Lorence 9769 (PTBG, BNM, NY, TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 661257)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 61)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 22499)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L. f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Chelbacheb Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 610725)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Mecherchar (Eil Malk) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 661258)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngchelobel Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1968) (voucher ID: PTBG 22503)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L. f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
var latifolia
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 162196)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 162315)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. latifolia
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1292)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa var. Latifolia (Miq.) Corner
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerukuid (Ngerukeuid, Seventy) Islands   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. latifolia
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerukuid (Ngerukeuid, Seventy) Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 540103)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ulong (Aulong) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
var latifolia
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ulong (Aulong) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1969) (voucher ID: BNM 535)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa var. latifolia (Miq.) Corner
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
var latifolia
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 162312)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 162313)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 162316)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9528)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa var. latifolia (Miq.) Corner
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 75)
ssp. naumannii Engl.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 53)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 54)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (pp. 21-22)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990428-5 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-8)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080601-10
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659998)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mountains, plains; below 1900 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan, S Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 62-63)
Cultivated, roadside tree.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 42)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mountains, plains; below 1900 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 19)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé"
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Both var. microcarpa and var. latifolia (Fosberg et al., 1979; p. 54).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Chemical: "The most effective way to kill large Chinese banyans is by placing 3-5 ml of herbicide into holes drilled into the trunk each foot around trunk. Because of the compartmentalization of the trunks from the rooted and merged adventitious roots, the trunks must be drilled at each segment to ensure effective control. This can best be done by making follow-up treatments after symptoms from earlier treatments reveal unaffected stem segments. Banyans strangling a host tree can be treated in this way with glyphosate without killing the host. Triclopyr and dicamba are also effective in killing banyans by application to drilled holes"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 29 APR 2013.