Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ficus carica
L., Moraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: higo

Chinese: wu hua guo

English: common fig, edible fig, fig

French: carique, figuier commun

I-Kiribati: te biku

Korean: muhwagwanamu

Mangarevan: pika

Maori (Cook Islands): suke

Marshallese: wojke piik, wõjke-piik

Palauan: uósech, uosech

Rakahanga-Manihiki: monamona, monamona

Samoan: mati

Spanish: higo, higuera común

Tongan: fiki

Tongarevan: monamona

Tuamotuan: tute

Tuvaluan: mati

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Deciduous, dioecious shrub or small tree up to 10 m high.  Young stems ± glabrous to moderately hairy, becoming glabrous.  Leaves sparsely to moderately hairy above, often densely hispid below, usually deeply palmately 3-7-lobed and irregularly serrate or crenate, broadly ovate, obtuse to cordate and symmetric at base, c. 10-25 cm long; veins not prominently raised; petiole less than blade; stipules 2 per node, glabrous, oblong, caducous.  Inflorescence sparsely hairy, pyriform, green, shortly pedunculate.  Syncarp green to purplish, 5-8 cm long; achenes irregularly ovoid to subglobose, c. 2 mm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 843).

Habitat/ecology:  "Riparian habitats, forests, disturbed sites.  This is a rapidly growing tree that spreads mainly vegetatively.  it forms dense thickets that displace native trees and understorey shrubs.  The dense foliage casts heavy shade and prevents establishment of native plants.  The tree resprouts vigorously after cutting or other damage"  (Weber, 2003; p. 169).  Cultivated for its fruit and grown as an ornamental.

In New Zealand, established locally from Auckland City northwards and elsewhere in waste places and scrubland (Webb et al., 1988; p. 843).

Propagation:  Seed, dispersed by birds (Weber, 2003; p. 169).

Native range:  Southern Europe and Western Asia (Webb et al., 1988; p. 843).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 179-180)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: St. John 14581 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 186)
Voucher cited: Moore 625
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 40)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 18)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Vahanga Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 250)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Flint Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold/Fosberg, F. Raymond (1937) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: St. John & Fosberg 17448 (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 20)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 20)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tabiteuea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 109)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 102)
Voucher cited: MacKee 28053
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 843)
"Waste places, scrubland".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 115)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 124)
Only one example seen. Voucher cited: CHR 170355
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9957 (BISH)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 54)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 47)
The common fig, occasionally cultivated in gardens.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (p. 156)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: St. John 14991
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34466
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 8)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011)
Naturalised
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. throughout China.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 61)
Cultivated in gardens.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 843)
"Waste places, scrubland".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Young plants can easily be pulled by hand and larger saplings removed with a weed wrench.  Repeated and frequent cutting may eventually exhaust the root system".

Chemical:  "Chemical control includes applying a triclopyr herbicide to cut stumps over a period of several years; treating the basal areas of uncut stems is also effective in the case of smaller trees"  (Weber, 2003; p. 169).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 21 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 17 JAN 2011.