Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Festuca arundinacea
Schreb., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Festuca elatior L.; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.; Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: wei zhuang yang mao

English: alta fescue, coarse fescue, reed fescue, tall fescue

French: faux-roseau, fétuque élevée, fétuque roseau

Japanese: oni-ushi-no-kegusa

Spanish: cañuela alta, festuca alta, festuca cañosa

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Tall robust tussock forming perennial, commonly of river beds. Prophyll 2.5 cm or more, keels antrorsely prickle-toothed and with mixed short hairs. Branching intravaginal and extravaginal when shortly rhizomatous. Leaf-sheath 5-20 cm, striate, finely scabrid or smooth becoming scabrid near ligule. Ligule 0.5-1-3 mm, firm. Auricles clasping 0.7-1.5 mm, hairs c. 0.3 mm. Leaf-blade 10-100 cm x 5-10 mm wide, many-ribbed, midrib prominent, finely antrorsely scabrid below becoming very scabrid above, margins finely prickle-toothed. Culm to 1.5 m, stout, nodes conspicuous, dark, constricted, internodes glabrous. Panicle to 40 cm, erect or nodding, with 10 or more nodes of many spikelets; basal branches to 20 cm, binate, one long, naked below, other shorter with spikelets to base, other nodes with similar binate branches becoming shorter and eventually solitary near apex or solitary throughout and spikelets to base of branches; rachis smooth below becoming scabrid above pedicels and branches with prominent prickle-teeth. Spikelets 10-15 mm, narrow, of 4-7 florets. Glumes unequal, shortly awned, keel scabrid above otherwise smooth, margins membranous; lower 3-8 mm, 1-nerved, upper 4-9 mm, 3-nerved. Lemma 7-10 mm, 5-nerved, rounded, fine prickle-teeth on central and lateral nerves, margins membranous shortly toothed throughout broadly membranous above terminating in small (0.3-0.6 mm) hyaline prickled lobes; awn 1-2.5 mm, visible through apical lobes. Palea ≥ lemma, 7-10 x 1.5 mm wide, apex bifid ciliate, keels toothed ± to base, interkeel glabrous. Callus 0.25 mm, margin hairs 0 or few; articulation flat. Rachilla 1.5 -1.75 mm, stiff hairs scattered throughout. Lodicules 0.75-1.6 mm, > ovary, deeply to ± irregularly lobed, glabrous. Anthers 3-4 mm, caudate. Gynoecium: ovary 0.6-1.0 mm, apex glabrous; stigma-styles subterminal, 1.8-3.0 mm, hairs almost to base. Caryopsis 3 mm, obovate, adherent to palea; embryo 1 mm; hilum 2 mm"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 205)

"This species is distinguished by its flat leaf blades 3-12 mm wide, ciliate auricles, and lemma 7-10 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1547).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, woodland, riparian habitats, freshwater and saline wetlands.  A grass native in moist forests and grassland, reed swamps, riparian habitats, and seashores.  It is a persistent grass that strongly competes with native species.  It forms dense and species poor stands where invasive that displace native herbaceous vegetation and reduce species richness.  The grass is mostly infected with an endophytic fungus making it more drought tolerant and increasing its nitrogen utilization efficiency"  (Weber, 2003; p. 168).

In Hawaii, "adventive in pastures and open grasslands, 820-1,490 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1547).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, northern Africa, western and central Asia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 555)
As Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1547)
Voucher cited: Ewart III 204 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Shannon, Robynn K./Herbst, Derral R. (1997) (p. 60)
Vouchers cited: Hobdy 3586 (BISH), Flynn et al. 3976 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 21)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & F. Duvall H30138
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: K. Kawelo s.n. (BISH 074671)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Valleys, under shrubs, along forest margins; 700-1200 m. Xinjiang; cultivated and adventive in Gansu, Hubei, Jiangxi, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang, N.E. China.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 205)
As. Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.); Holub; "river beds and banks, and waste places; grown in pastures for summer herbage".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  "Heavy infestations are controlled by prescribed burning at the flowering stage".

Chemical:  "Small infestations are controlled by applying glyphosate, metsulfuron, or imazapic before flowers appear"  (Weber, 2003; p. 168).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 11 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 29 APR 2013.