Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Euphorbia ophthalmica
Pers., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Chamaesyce ophthalmica (Pers.) D. G. Burch

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Florida hammock sandmat

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herb, annual; stems to several, to 1 mm thick, prostrate or decumbent to 15 cm long, branching throughout their length, densely tomentose at tips, usually with long multicellular hairs; leaves membranous; stipules distinct or joined at base, somewhat lacerate to 1 mm long; blades elliptic or markedly rhombic, 8-20 mm long, 3-12 mm wide, base rounded to cuneate, margin serrate, sometimes obscurely so, apex obtuse to acute, cyathia in dense terminal glomerules, often 2 at apex of each stem or on short leafy laterals; glands minute, purple, the appendages obsolete; male flowers 2-9 per cyathium; style joined at base, bifid for half its length; capsule ovoid, strigose, to 1 mm long, 1 mm wide; seed cuneiform, 0.8 mm long, 0.4 mm wide, strongly 4-angled, angles subequal, the faces concave, obscurely transversely ridged or wrinkled"  (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 579-589).

Habitat/ecology:  "A common weed throughout much of the American tropics" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 579-589).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern United States, West Indies, Mexico, South America; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Georgia, Louisiana
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Naturalized around Brisbane, Australia (Barbara Waterhouse, pers. com.).

Probably not native to the Galápagos Islands; probably introduced per Charles Darwin Research Station.


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This page was created on 20 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 29 APR 2013.