Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Euphorbia hyssopifolia
L., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L.) Small; Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zi ban da ji

English: hyssop-leaf sandmat

Spanish: golondrina, tripa de pollo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect to ascending annual herb up to 60 cm or more in height with red or green, glabrous stems and milky sapLeaves simple, opposite, blade oblong to linear-oblong, 0.8-3 cm long, round to obtuse at the tip, rounded to oblique at the base; surfaces glabrous or slightly pilose; margins serrate; petiole 1-2 mm long.  Inflorescence of leafy axillary cymes, ultimately in several cyathia with a tiny, glabrous, 4-lobed involucre bearing 5 glands and a pink or white appendage.  Corolla absent.  Female flower 1, consisting of 1 stamen.  Fruit a glabrous, 3-lobed, subglobose schizocarp 1.5-2 mm long, broadest below the middle, splitting into 3 one-seeded segments.  Distinguishable by its glabrous herbaceous stems, milky sap, opposite leaves, short leafy cymes, tiny white-flowered cyathia (a kind of inflorescence), and tiny 3-lobed splitting fruit.  Easy confused with Euphorbia hypericifolia."  (Whistler & Steele, 1999; p. 48).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "sparingly naturalized in low elevation, dry, disturbed sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 610, 1874).  On Kwajalein, Marshalll Islands, "uncommon as a weed of disturbed places" (Whistler & Steele, 1999; p. 48).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "From southern United States to Argentina and the West Indies, naturalized in the Paleotropics" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 610).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 37015)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L.) Small
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 610)
Voucher cited: Stone 3014 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 610)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1999) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: C. Imada 98-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 610)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H70115 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 610)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 48)
Vouchers cited: Herbst 8949, Whistler 11189
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 43963)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hyssopifolia
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Bruegmann, Marie M. (1999) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Bruegmann 2029 (BISH)
Uncommon
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Disturbed areas along railways and roads. Hainan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Disturbed areas along railways and roads.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Euphorbia hyssopifolia is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Euphorbia hyssopifolia as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Euphorbia hyssopifolia may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bruegmann, Marie M. 1999. New records of flowering plants on Midway Atoll. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1998. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 59:1-2.

Herbarium Pacificum Staff. 1999. New Hawaiian plant records for 1998. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1998. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 58:3-11.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1991. Voucher specimen #PTBG37015(Art Whistler 8045).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1998. Voucher specimen #PTBG43963 (Art Whistler 11189).

Oppenheimer, Hank L. 2003. New plant records from Maui and Hawai‘i Counties. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 73:3-30.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 15 APR 2005 and was last updated on 1 NOV 2011.