Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Euphorbia hypericifolia
L., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Chamaesyce glomerifera Millsp.; Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.; Euphorbia glomifera Millsp.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: tong nai cao

English: chickenweed, graceful sandmat, graceful spurge

Marshallese: bwilbwilikkaj

Palauan: karkar, kerkar

Spanish: golondrina, lechera, lechosa

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect to ascending annual herb up to 80 cm in height, with glabrous stems and milky sapLeaves simple, opposite, blade oblong to oblanceolate, 0.8-4 cm long, round to subacute at the tip, oblique at the base; surfaces glabrous; margins serrate; petiole 1-2 mm long.  Inflorescence of short, nearly leafless axillary cymes of several cyathia, each cyathium with a tiny, glabrous, 4-lobed involucre bearing 5 glands and usually a white or pink appendage.  Corolla absent.  Female flower 1, consisting of a superior, 3-lobed ovary with 3 styles; male flowers 2-20, tiny, consisting of 1 stamen.   Fruit a glabrous, 3-lobed, subglobose schizocarp 1-1.5 mm long, broadest near the middle, splitting into 3 one-seeded segments.  Distinguishable by its glabrous, herbaceous stems, milky sap, opposite leaves, leafless axillary cymes, tiny, white-flowered cyathia (a kind of inflorescence), and tiny 3-lobed splitting fruit.  Similar to Euphorbia hyssopifolia, which differs in having leafy cymes and narrower linear-oblong leaves."  (Whistler & Steele, 1999; p. 47).

"A low herb with slender stems and elliptical leaves about 1.3 cm long, usually shorter, distally serrulate-denticulate, usually reddish-purplish, and the stems reddish; cyathia in small cymes in upper axils; bracts white; capsules with forked styles"  (Stone, 1970; p. 374).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and relatively common in low elevation, dry, disturbed habitats"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 609-610).  In Fiji, "sparingly found as a weed along roadsides, in cultivated areas and fields, and in waste places" (Smith, 1981; p. 575). In New Caledonia, "cette espèce, arrivée paraît-il récemment, se répand dans les jardins et terrains vagues" (MacKee, 1994; p. 51). "Occasional on roadsides and other disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 18).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern United States to Argentina and the West Indies, widely naturalized in the Paleotropics" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 609-610).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34833)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34776)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Whistler 1309
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Sykes 27
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 43858)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hypericifolia
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 44173)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hypericifolia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 16)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24867)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hypericifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 85)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 20b (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosbert 58442 (BISH), P.Raynor 167 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41834)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hypericifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43823)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hypericifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 575)
Vouchers cited: DA 12608, DA 11307, DA 12223
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 104)
Voucher cited: Florence 9261
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 47-48)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9261 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 374)
As Euphorbia glomerifera Millspaugh) Wheeler
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 609-610)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 609-610)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 609-610)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 609-610)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 10)
Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40123 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 609-610)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H70125 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 609-610)
Voucher cited: Forbes s. n. (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Flint Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold/Fosberg, F. Raymond (1937) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: St. John & Fosberg 17470 (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 25)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Enderbury Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Clegern 173 (BISH)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 24)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Walker 30216 (US), Degener & Hateway 21300 (BISH), Fosberg & Stoddart 54780 (US), Fosberg 55718 (US, BISH, K), Clapp P-71-23 (US), Clegern 55 (BISH)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 173)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 76)
Voucher: Imada 2003-146 (BISH 697758)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 31469)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hypericifolia
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 73)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1988) (p. 13)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1985) (voucher ID: PTBG 23948)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hypericifolia
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 47)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 41402a (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 8)
"Uncommon; in ruderal areas and around abandoned houses".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 47)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 39489, Whistler 11159
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31166 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 43975)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia hypericifolia
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Rongerik (Roñdik) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 47)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 7)
"Uncommon; few plants observed by wall of former R&D farm".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A14)
Common; in ruderal areas, Mili.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 130)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58658 (US), Thaman & Manner 72 (SUVA), Hassall 223 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9555 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 51)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 23403, MacKee 24832, MacKee 30198, MacKee 35841, MacKee 36362
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 89)
As Euphorbia glomifera in Sykes. Voucher cited: CHR 169726
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 32)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 40)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Voucher: BMW 6564 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Voucher: Lorence 9793 (PTBG, BNM, NY,TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 49615)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Voucher: Lorence 9742 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 49561)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Whistler 931
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Whistler 2068
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Buelow 1505
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 57)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 609-610)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 25)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 33618, Fosberg 33622
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 10)
Voucher citeds: Fosberg 43520 (US), Sachet 870 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 33618 (US), Fosberg 33622 (US)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, roads, scrub. Beijing, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 180-181)
Along roadside or in shade or wet places.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 156)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 25)
Naturalised
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, roads, scrub.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 27)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37920)
Taxon name on voucher: Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 24)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 156)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 DEC 2011.