Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Euphorbia cyathophora
Murr., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Poinsettia cyathophora (Murray) Klotzsch & Garcke

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xing xing cao

English: Christmas bush, dwarf poinsettia, false poinsettia, fire-on-the-mountain, hypocrite plant, Mexican fire plant, Mexican poinsettia, painted leaf, painted leaf spurge, painted spurge, summer poinsettia, wild poinsettia

I-Kiribati: te kabekau

Marshallese: nukne, nukuni

Nauruan: deriba, deribeh

Niuean: toto uli

Tongan: fe‘ofa‘aki

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect herb with green stems to nearly 1 m tall; leaves alternate, petioles slender, 1-4 cm long; blades mostly pandurate with 2 or 4 obtuse or subacute lobes, those of basal leaves sometimes simply ovate, entire or obscurely distantly serrate, 4-7 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide; uppermost bracteal leaves with basally red-blotched blades; cyathia compact in cymes; involucre with 1 or 2 nectaries between 2 or 3 of the 5 ovate-oblong laciniate lobes; ovary 3-lobed, stipitate; capsule 3 mm long, 4 mm wide, glabrous; seeds dark brown, tuberculate, obovoid, basally flattened, apically subconic, 2 x 1.5 mm"  (Stone, 1970; p. 373).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, dry, disturbed sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 618).  In Fiji, an abundantly naturalized weed occurring from near sea level to about 100 m in clearings, along roadsides and trails, and in coconut plantations and canefields; it is often abundant in coastal areas, frequently on sandy beaches (Smith, 1981; p. 570). In Niue, "one of the commonest weeds of waste places all round the perimeter of the island.  It is also found rather less frequently through the interior, in old plantations and by the roadside." (Sykes, 1970; pp. 88-89)  "Occasional in disturbed places on Niue, but more of an escaped ornamental in Tonga and Samoa" (Whistler, 1988; p. 18). In New Caledonia, "localement comun, surtout en arrière-plage" (MacKee, 1994; p. 50). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 233).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Eastern and southern US to northern South America and the West Indies (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 618).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3104
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3338
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 41713)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 10407)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 2)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"An occasional weed of disturbed ground". Vouchers cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5673 (MEL), A.N. Rodd 1351 (NSW), J. Pickard 2689 (NSW)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23934)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 16)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 85)
Voucher cited: S.F. Glassman 2608 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Evans 373 (US)
Rare
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Lamotrek Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fulanga Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 570)
Voucher cited: Smith 1163
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 570)
Voucher cited: Tothill 709
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 570)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 901
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 570)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4801
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 570)
Vouchers cited: DA 5760, DA 15280
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 570)
Voucher cited: DA 10226
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 570)
Vouchers cited: Degener & Ordonez 13690, Greenwood 144, DA 10704, DA 10668, DA 8002, DA 12167
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 44726)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43663)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora J. A. Murray
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 61-62)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11784 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 61-62)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9904 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 104)
Voucher cited: BRY 26667
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 104)
Voucher cited: Florence 5491
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 61-62)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5491 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Ornementale peu commune.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 61-62)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 61-62)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7139 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 61-62)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10244 (PAP)
"Ornementale, largement naturalisée dans le village".
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 373)
Voucher cited: Stone 3978 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23848)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2010) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. McGuire BIED10 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 618)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 137)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 618)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 618)
Voucher cited: Forbes 2443.O (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 25)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 25)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 25)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 23-24)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 30885 (US), Degener & Hatheway in 1951, Foale 5 (K), Clegern 46 (BISH), Luomala 24 (BISH)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 173)
As Euphorbia heterophylla L. var. cyathophora (Murray) Griseback. Voucher cited: Luomala 24
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Manra (Sydney) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 23-24)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54873 (US, HAW, K), Long 2536 (BISH, US)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Nikumaroro (Gardner) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 23-24)
Vouchers cited: Long & Woodward 2466 (US), Fosberg 55753 (US, BISH, K)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Orona (Hull) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 23-24)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54797 (US, HAW, K), Bryan 49 (BISH), Long 2018 (BISH, US)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abaiang Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 19)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Maiana Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Marakei Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 19)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tabiteuea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (pp. 49-50)
Vouchers cited: Bryan s.n., Wagner 3374, Fosberg 26482, Fosberg 31162, Herbst 8882, Whistler 11232
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31162 (US), Fosberg 26482 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 44952)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. iii)
As Euphorbia heterophylla; voucher cited: Anderson 3612
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 7)
"Common; roadsides, ruderal areas and entering disturbed forest areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 33842 (US), Fosberg 27011 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 93)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy (year unknown)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A15)
Uncommon; ruderal and along pathways, Mili, Nallo.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33672 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0514200922
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 137)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 128)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58628 (US), Scully 104N (US?), Thaman & Manner 31 (SUVA), Thaman & Manner 27818 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9556 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: MacKee 5199
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: MacKee 18872
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45865
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 50)
Vouchers cited: Barrau 38, Buchholz 1676
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 88-89)
Voucher cited: CHR 169731
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 32)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 42)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Carp Resort. Voucher: Lorence 9859 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 152)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora Murr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 136)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Voucher: Lorence 9741 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 33)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora Murr.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 73)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 18)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Ellison, Joanna C. (1990) (p. 29)
On outlier islets of Makaha‘a and Oneata.
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-8)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 618)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-8)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 25)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34474
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 10)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34474 (US)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 3)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated, sometimes naturalized. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 180)
Ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 114)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 152)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 808 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 27)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37918)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia cyathophora Murr.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 13)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Gwynne & Wood 1022 (EA), Stoddart 7209 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 170)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2356 (K)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 4 DEC 2009.