Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eugenia uniflora
L., Myrtaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Reject, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Other Latin names:  Eugenia brasiliana (L.) Aubl.; Eugenia myrtifolia Salisb.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: pitanga

Chinese: hong guo zi

English: Barbados cherry, Brazil-cherry, cayenne cherry, French cherry, pitanga, red Brazil cherry, Surinam cherry

French: cerise côtelée, cerise créole, cerise de Cayenne, cerisier carré, cerisier de Cayenne, roussaille

Maori (Cook Islands): menemene, menemene, venevene

Niuean: kafika, kafika palangi, kafika papalangi

Portuguese: pitanga

Samoan: vine, vine

Spanish: cerezo de Cayena, nagapiry, pitanga

Tongan: pomikanite

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Small tree or shrub, young leaves coppery-pink; mature leaves opposite, ovate or narrowly ovate, subglossy, paler beneath, 3-7 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, lateral nerves about 7-9 pairs, margins often slightly and irregularly wavy, or entire; petioles 1-3 mm long; flowers commonly axillary, solitary or fascicled, peduncles slender, 1.5-3 cm long, with small bracts; calyx 4-lobed, lobes 3-4 mm long; petals 4, white, thin, fugacious, nearly 1 cm long, obovate; stamens many (about 50), 8 mm long; ovary slightly ridged; fruit a succulent berry with usually 8 deep longitudinal grooves and as many ridges, 1.5 cm long, 2 cm wide, red or very dark red when ripe 1-2-seeded, crowned by calyx-limb, juicy, edible, acid."  (Stone, 1970; p. 452).

"Arbuste à petit arbre de 2 à 7 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses petites feuilles ovales, un peu coriaces, ses fleurs solitaires blanches, ses petits fruits charnus globuleux avec 8 côtes saillantes, de couleur jaune devenant rouge vif à maturité"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 36).

Habitat/ecology:  "Coastal scrub, forests and forest edges, riverbanks.  A fast growing species, growing best in rich, well-drained soils.  It forms dense thickets that displace native plants and prevents their regeneration"  (Weber, 2003; p. 164).  Prefers fertile, moist soils and partial shade (Bodkin, 1986, cited in Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; p. 108). 

In Hawai‘i, "very sparingly naturalized in low elevation mesic sites, especially valley floors, 30-730 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 961).

Propagation:  Seed, probably spread by birds.

Native range:  Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 35)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"It has been collected on Lord Howe Is., but without information as to its spontaneity". Voucher cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5852 (MEL)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"Cultivated, escaped and now self-sown in at least one locality". W.R. Sykes NI 528 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 36, 42)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81939)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Reported to be present by the Cook Islands Natural Heritage Project.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
"Potential invader"
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 164819)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 116)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 373)
Perhaps sparingly naturalized.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11008 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence 6213 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & S.P. Perlman 9555 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601841)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence, D.H. Lorence, S.P. Perlman & W.L. Wagner 9613 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601908)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4165 (PAP), J. Florence 4240 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 555146)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558061)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40849)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 53)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64947 (US)
Possibly naturalized.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 64947 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 614455)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 81)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 164833)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492711)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 197)
Voucher cited: BRY 26566
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 197)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3659b (PAP), F. R. Fosberg 63754 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492783)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607490)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3659b (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2078 (US)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5766 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6169 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 551111)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11124 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 644219)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 452)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 190)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 164933)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 164934)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 961)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 961)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 961)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2010) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 070403-04 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 16)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H30103 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H100114 (BISH), Starr & Martz 011025-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 961)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 961)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: A. Lau & D. Frohlich 2008050201 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 101)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Voucher cited: MacKee 5277
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Voucher cited: Baumann 14532
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 1967 (Z), Schmid 2337 (NOU), Blanchon 1556 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 5502, MacKee 21048, MacKee 40702
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 130)
Mostly cultivated. Voucher cited: CHR 170464
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 23)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 91)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9572 (BISH), Yuncker 9982 (BISH)
"Occasional about dwellings and in theicckets near villages".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 14)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Miles, Joel (year unknown)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 408)
Only in cultivation.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 103)
"Gardens".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: Ross 7, Fosberg & B. Christian 11176
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 687 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & S. Waldren 11049 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 164865)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 164862)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 164863)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 403813)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417643)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia uniflora L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 53)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 961)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-8)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 3)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in Fujian, Sichuan and Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 162)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 40)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 113)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/Naturalisé/Subspontané?"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Spreading on Mangaia, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young trees.

Chemical:  Cut larger trees and treat the stumps with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 164).

Additional information:
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).

Additional online information about Eugenia uniflora is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Eugenia uniflora as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Eugenia uniflora may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 164934 (Thompson, J.B. 441).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 164819 (Wilder, G.P. 1019).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 164862 (Christophersen, E. 426).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 164863 (Christophersen, E. 516).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1931. Voucher specimen #BISH 164865 (Christophersen, E. 2549).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1931. Voucher specimen #BISH 403813 (Christophersen, E. 1836).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1964. Voucher specimen #BISH 164933 (Stone, B.C.M. 5057).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 164833 (Smith, H.M. 156).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 81939 (Stoddart, D.R. 2309).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417643 (Whistler, W.A. W 721).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 492783 (Florence, J. 3659b).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 555146 (Florence, J. 4240).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 558061 (Florence, J. 4165).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 607490 (Fosberg, F.R. 63754).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 492711 (Florence, J. 4950).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 551111 (Florence, J. 6169).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 614455 (Fosberg, F.R. 64947).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 601841 (J.Florence 9555).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 601908 (J.Florence 9613).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 644219 (Florence 11124).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce. 1989. New collections and notes on the plants of Henderson, Pitcairn, Oeno, and Ducie Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 329. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 18 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex. 2010. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2008. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2008. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 107:3-18.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-3E. 35 pp.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Miles, Joel. 0. Joel Miles, pers. com.

Oppenheimer, Hank L. 2003. New plant records from Maui and Hawai‘i Counties. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 73:3-30.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

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Sachet, M-H. 1983. Takapoto Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago: terrestrial vegetation and flora. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 277. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 41 pp. + photos.

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Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 28 APR 2013.