Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eleusine tristachya
(Lam.) Lam., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cynosurus tristachyos Lam.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: American crowfoot grass, American yard-grass, crab grass, threespike goosegrass, threespike grass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial; short-lived; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; slender; 10-45 cm long. Culm-internodes elliptical in section. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths keeled; outer margin glabrous. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades 6-25 cm long; 1-4 mm wide. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2-3; digitate; linear, or oblong; unilateral; 1-4 cm long; 10-16 mm wide. Rhachis broadly winged; with rounded midrib. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 6-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 5-9 mm long; 4-6 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; similar to fertile lemma in texture. Lower glume lanceolate; 1.5-2 mm long; 0.5 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 3-4 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Fertile lemma ovate; 4-5 mm long; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined (excluding subsidiaries). Lemma midvein with contiguous subsidiary veins (3-veined). Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.66 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Flower: Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; orbicular; isodiametric; trigonous; concealed by floret; 2 mm long; dark brown; rugose. Embryo 0.3-0.4 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform"  (GrassBase).

Description from the Flora of New Zealand.

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "waste land, lawns and golf courses"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 523).  In Australia, "weed of disturbed ground and extensive mown areas"  (NSW PlantNET).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 465, 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 465, 553)
Voucher cited: Danton G(1432)1197
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Victoria
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 523)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 8 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 28 MAR 2011.