Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eleusine coracana
(L.) Gaertn., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cynosurus coracanus L; Eleusine africana Kenn.-O'Byrne; Eleusine indica subsp. africana (Kenn.-O'Byrne) S. M. Phillips

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: can

English: African finger millet, African millet, caracan millet, finger millet, koracan, ragi, ragi millet, wild finger millet

French: coracan, eleusine, mil rouge, raggee

Hindi: mandua

Spanish: coracán, dagussa, mijo africano

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual; caespitose. Basal innovations flabellate. Culms erect; 60-200 cm long; 5-20 mm in diameter. Culm-internodes elliptical in section. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths keeled; outer margin hairy. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades conduplicate; 30-60 cm long; 6-12 mm wide. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle glabrous, or pilose above (at raceme base). Racemes 4-7; digitate; erect; linear, or oblong; incurved; unilateral; 3-8 cm long; 9-15 mm wide. Rhachis wingless; flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 5-10 mm long; persistent on plant. Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 2-5 mm long; 0.6-0.7 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 3.5 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute. Fertile lemma lanceolate in profile; 4 mm long; membranous; 3 -veined (excluding subsidiaries). Lemma midvein with contiguous subsidiary veins (3-veined). Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.9-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; orbicular; isodiametric; biconvex; exposed between gaping lemma and palea at maturity; 1.5-2.5 mm long; dark brown; rugose"  (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Africa, Oman and Yemen; cultivated elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 305)
Vouchers cited: DA 2737, DA 2801, DA 3949, DA 8473
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 192)
Rare if persisting at all.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 41)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang
"Cultivated cereal crop".
China
China
Hong Kong native
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 334)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 38)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated cereal crop".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Additional information:
Information from James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.

Additional online information about Eleusine coracana is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Eleusine coracana as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Eleusine coracana may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

U. S. Government. 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (on-line resource).

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 13 DEC 2008 and was last updated on 21 APR 2013.