Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eleocharis acicularis
(L.) Roem. & Schult., Cyperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: niu mao zhan, song mao lin, song ye lin

English: dwarf hair-grass, needle spike-rush, needle spikerush, needle spikesedge, slender spikerush

French: elééocharide aciculaire, héléocharis aciculaire, scirpe épingle

Japanese: matsubai

Spanish: hierba pilosa, junco de espiga, pasto de agua, pelillo, velita

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "A variable, tufted perennial sedge with small rhizomes that creep extensively, allowing the formation of mats or turf; rhizomes 0.3 to 0.6 mm thick; roots not fleshy; culms erect, slender, filiform, may be somewhat flattened, usually 4-angled with lengthwise grooves, smooth, 2 to 25 cm tall, 0.25 to 0.5 mm wide, in running water may be taller; leaf sheath thin, membranous, loose, summit may be subtruncate, reddish below, pallid or hyaline terminally; spikelets ovate to lanceolate, or may be linear, sometimes flattened, sessile, spirally arranged, usually 5 to 10 flowered but variable, about 3 to 3 mm long and 1 to 1.5 mm wide; glumes keeled or 1-nerved, oblong-ovate, midrib green, often with reddish or purplish sides, 1.5 to 2 mm long; bristles slender, up to 4, equaling or exceeding the length of the achene (nut), sometimes reduced or absent, stamens 2 or 3, anthers 0.5 to 1 mm long, style 3-parted; achene, obovate-oblong, obscurely trigonous or nearly round in cross section, up to 10 longitudinal ribs with valleys of horizontally elongate cells in a longitudinal series, 0.5 to 1 mm long, about 0.5 mm in diameter, weight 0.5 mg, apical tubercle minute, conic, skullcap-like, with bristles or lacking, color may be pearly white, yellow, pale gray or light brown"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 310).

Habitat/ecology:  "Muddy river banks, vernal pools, lake shores and margins, marshes and shallow ponds and reservoirs, ditches, coastal lowlands and in deep or shallow water, depending on the season, stage of growth, wave action or competition.  Can infest the margins of open water bodies initially, then spread inward as conditions permit and finally contribute to the swamp-marsh-building process.  Grows very well in water of pH 2.8--a rare feat for spermatophytes.  Often troublesome in coastal grazing lands and wet areas of meadows and pastures"  (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 313, 315).

Propagation:  Seed and rooting fragments of plants. Locally by rhizomes and stolons (Holm et al., 1997; p. 317).

Native range:  Europe, Asia and the Americas; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 17)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 119)
About rice paddies, altitude 1,200 to 1,500 m.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 311)
In wet places.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Celebes
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 314)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 25 JAN 2007 and was last updated on 21 APR 2013.