Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eichhornia crassipes
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Pontederiaceae


High risk, score: 26 (Go to the risk assessment)

Chinese: feng yan lan

English: lilac-devil, Nile lily, water hyacinth

Fijian: bekabekairaga, dabedabe ne ga, mbekambekairanga, ndambendambe ni nga

French: jacinthe d'eau, pensée d'eau

Hindi: jal khumbe

Japanese: hoteiaoi

Maori (Cook Islands): riri vai

Palauan: bung el ralm

Samoan: lili vai, lili vai

Spanish: aguapey, buchon, calamote, jacinto aquático, jacinto de agua, jacinto de rio, lechuguilla, liro de agua, tarulla

"A perennial aquatic herb; stems short, floating or rooting in mud, rhizomatous or stoloniferous, rooting from the nodes; roots long, sometimes dark because of their purple anthocyanin, pendant; leaves in a rosette; petioles spongy, in young specimens short and with a one-sided swelling or inflation but up to 30 cm long when older, tapering and narrowing from the bulbous base to the point of attachment with the lamina; lamina circular to kidney-shaped, glossy smooth, 4 to 15 cm long and wide, acting as a sail in the wind; inflorescence in spikes with about eight flowers, long peduncled, bibracteate, the lower bract with long sheath and small lamina, the upper almost entirely included within the sheath of the lower one, tubular with a small pointed tip (apiculate); flower-bearing part of the rachis up to 15 cm or less long; entire scape may be 30 cm; perianth six-lobed, united below into a narrow tube, lilac, bluish purple or white, the upper lobe bearing a violet blotch with yellow center; stamens six, three long, three shorter, attached to the tube; capsule membranous, three-locular, dehiscent, many-seeded, as many as 50 or so per capsule; seed ovoid, ribbed, 0.5 to 1 mm.  The species is distinguished by the almost one-sided swelling or inflation of the petiole, its long peduncled bibracteate spike, and its upper perianth blotched with yellow at the center"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 72).

"Rooted only at flowering time by long slender roots; otherwise floating, with thick, fleshy, more or less horizontal roots; leaves clustered, on bulbously inflated petioles, blades rounded or oblong, up to 3-4 inches wide; flowers showy, pale violet with a spot of bright yellow on the large upper lobe, some forms with pink and yellow flowers, all parts edible" (Stone, 1970; p. 116). Freshwater lakes, ponds, marshes, ditches, canals, slow-moving streams.  "It is an aquatic floating weed. It does not tolerate brackish water (Holm et al., 1977; pp. 72-77) and salinity can limit or modify its distribution. For example, water hyacinth, which accumulates in the coastal lagoons of West Africa during the wet season, is reduced in those areas which become saline during the dry season. Growth by water hyacinth is favored by nutrient rich water, in particular by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium" (Ecoport). "High growth rates mean populations can quickly form thick mats on the water surface.  This makes passage by boats difficult, chokes irrigation channels, pollutes water and provides breeding grounds for disease-carrying insects.  The natural beauty of areas is also degraded as native plants, birds and fish are displaced."  (Smith, 2002; p. 82).

In Hawai‘i, "introduced as an ornamental, now naturalized and locally abundant in standing or slow-moving water such as ponds and sluggish streams at low elevations"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1604-1606).  In Fiji, "a locally abundant adventive, occurring near sea level (but elsewhere up to an elevation of 1,600 m or higher)"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 175-176). In New Caledonia, "peu cultivée à présent, existe en masses serrées là où des rivières à courant faible ou des mares lui offerent des stations favorables mais n'obstrue pas les cours d'eau autant qu'en d'autres pays tropicaux" (MacKee, 1994; p. 118). In New Zealand, "An established escape from ponds and aquaria, now eradicated from many localities. E. crassipes was originally introduced as an ornamental, but it both accidentally escaped from cultivation and was deliberately planed, and by 1950 was established and troublesome in dams, ponds, swamps, slow-moving streams and river cut-offs in the Auckland Province" Possession of the plant in New Zealand is illegal (Healy & Edgar, 1980; p. 60). "Water hyacinth reproduces vegetatively by means of stolons which, together with solitary plants or drifting mats, are readily distributed by water currents, wind, boats and rafts. The plant also produces vast quantities of long-lived seed and persistence and spread by this means can be very significant (Sculthorpe 1971)." (Ecoport).  "Spread throughout its range by intentional introductions as an ornamental" (Smith, 2002; p. 82). Brazil, French Guian, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela; cultivated and widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics (GRIN).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 35)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Common in open fresh-water habitats". Sight record, 1983, P.S. Green.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 99)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 99)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 11)
"Apparently not yet naturalized".
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 99)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (pp. 107-108)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2553 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 62)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 26257 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2553 (BISH), L. Stemmermann 2979 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 908 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 910 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 99)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 175-176)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 184, Vaughan 3161, DA 11013, DA 9462, DA 3991, DA 3992, DA 6085, DA 3481
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: S. P. Perlman, E. Vogt 15889 (PTBG)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 376)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 376)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 238, Florence 2557, BRY 25445
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2557 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Peu envahissant.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 64)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 116)
Voucher cited: Stone 4915 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 99)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1604-1606)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1604-1606)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1604-1606)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1604-1606)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 105)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 4)
"Rare; few plants observed in container by private residence in Ine; could pose serious environmental threat if introduced into wetlands".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 55)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: Hassall 255 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Esiste en masses serrées dans les mares ou les rivières à faible courant mais n'obstrue pas les cours d'eau autant qu'en d'autres pays tropicaux.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 118)
Vouchers cited: Sarasin 299 (Z), Compton 1602 (BM), Baumann & Guillaumin 9570, MacKee 4318, Jérémie & Tirel 1647
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 12, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 99)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 12, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 18)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 195)
Taxon name on voucher: Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. & Zecc.) Solms
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 12)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 46)
Introduced and eliminated several times [as of date of publication].
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 61)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 200)
Introduced about 1912 as an ornamental, now very abundant in shallow water of lakes and in slow streams.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 6972 (PTBG, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 306)
Taxon name on voucher: Eichhornia crassipes
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 70)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 165)
Dominant invader.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 11)
One plant seen in 1952.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 7)
Not seen in 1961 or 1963.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 82)
All infestations eradicated except for Fogg Dam where isolated outbreaks are under control.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 82)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 356)
In ponds and rivers.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 74, 76)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 136)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 136)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 191)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 136)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 75)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: N. T. Moar 445 (CHR 64900)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 74, 77)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 136)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 38)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 113)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Envahissant"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 62)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 148)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 72-77)
Can become so thick that it chokes lakes and rivers (Florida and Australia). A declared noxious weed in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland (Smith, 2002; p. 82). A Class A (eradicate) noxious weed in New Zealand. Can be used for pig feed, but this may aid in its spread.

Planting of this species in the State of Florida (U.S.) is prohibited by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Hunsberger, 2001). See "Biology and control of aquatic plants: A best management practices handbook"  for control information (large file, PDF format).  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical: Hand pulling, dragline or specially designed harvesting machine.

Permanent drainage to dry out a pond or lake will control water hyacinth (Smith et al.1984).

Chemical: Herbicidal control of large infestations of water hyacinth growing under favorable conditions has been attempted only rarely (Scott et al. undated) and even when enormous resources have been invested, as in Sudan, has had little effect. However, this method has been successful for controlling small infestations accessible by land or boat (Smith et al. 1984; Jamieson et al. 1977) and eradicating small infestations in regions that are climatically unfavorable to growth of this plant. The herbicides most commonly used have been 2,4-D and Glyphosate, the first of these being by far the most widely used as it is relatively inexpensive.

The proliferation of water hyacinth in its exotic range is determined largely by two factors; nutrient supply and the absence of natural enemies of the weeds. To be fully effective, control strategies must address both watershed management and direct weed control.

The effects which the management of watersheds can have on the nutrient level of rivers, lakes and other wetlands has already been referred to. Watersheds must be managed to control water hyacinth and other floating aquatic weeds, provide a sustainable, acceptable life-style for the human population living in the watershed, and conserve the ecology and biodiversity. (GPPIS).

Biological:  "There have been many attempts at biological control, with a steadily increasing record of substantial successes, although these have generally been slow in emerging.  The most important natural enemies include two weevils (Neochetina eichhorniae and N. bruchi), two moth larvae (Sameodes albiguttalis and Haimbachia infusella), a mite (Orthogalumna terebrantis) and a fungus (Cercospora rodmanii).  However there are many other natural enemies that could be investigated if required.  Experience in a number of countries indicates that the establishment of several of the above organisms is highly likely to bring about a significant reduction in the abundance of water hyacinth.  Control is generally slow in developing and, in some situations, all of the above organisms (and perhaps even others) may be required to provide an adequate level of suppression"  (Waterhouse, 1994; p. 69).

The biological control agents which have been most successful are two weevils, Neochetina bruchi Hustache and N. eichhorniae Warner, and a moth Sameodes albiguttalis (Warren). However, optimal control has not been achieved in all situations and additional agents are being evaluated, including the moth Aeigona infusella.

Biological control information from the publication "Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States".

Waterhouse (1994, pp. 73-83) lists natural enemies, promising biological control agents, and a summary of attempts at biological control by country.


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