Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Dioscorea bulbifera
L., Dioscoreaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Reject, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. Florida)).

Other Latin names:  Dioscorea latifolia Benth.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: magnaheugo

Chinese: huang du

Chuukese: ápwereka, pereka, pureka, pureka, puruka, pwer, pwereka, pwerh

English: aerial yam, air potato, air yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato vine, potato yam, wild yam, yam

Fijian: kaile, kaile manu, kaile ndranu, kaile nganga, sarau

French: igname bulbifère, igname pousse en l'air

Hawaiian: hoi, pi‘oi

Japanese: kasyu-imo

Kosraean: ellal

Kwara‘ae: dau fasia, dau kwasi

Maori (Cook Islands): ‘oi

Marshallese: mata

Niuean: hoi

Palauan: belloi

Pohnpeian: kehmpalahi, kehp en palahi, on balai, weisoahn, weitol

Samoan: soi, soi, soi

Satawalese: pelai

Spanish: ñame de gunda, papa voladora

Tahitian: hoi

Tongan: hoi

Wallisian: hoi, soi

Yapese: rook, yoi

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Tuberous vine, tubers usually globose or pear-shaped, sometimes lobed, some edible (in cultivated races), others (in wild races) causing nausea or fatal; flesh yellowish; stems generally bearing bulbils, twining to the left (clockwise); leaves broadly cordate, 20-30 cm long, 20-30 cm wide, 5-nerved, lower surface duller green than upper,  short to long petiolate, petioles sometimes slightly winged, but stems not so; male flowers on pendent inflorescence, from bracteate (rarely leafy) stems, up to 50 (even 100) cm long; whitish or pinkish; female flowers on pendent axillary inflorescences; capsules winged, wings to 20 x 9 mm, rounded at both ends"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 127-128).

Habitat/ecology:  "Probably an intentional aboriginal introduction into Polynesia. It is common to locally abundant in plantations and on roadsides, as well as being naturalized in secondary and sometimes in primary forests" (Whistler, 1983; p. 80).

In Hawai‘i, "a Polynesian introduction, naturalized primarily in mesic areas, especially shaded mesic valleys and disturbed mesic forest, 5-670 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1437).  In Fiji, "cultivated and also naturalized, occurring in various types of forest from near sea level to 900 m" (Smith, 1979; pp. 168-169).  "Common in plantations and secondary forest" (Whistler, 1988; p. 45).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  East Africa to Polynesia (Stone, 1970; pp. 127-128), probably an early introduction to Pacific islands.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9505 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 50)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34766)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35135)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 50)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35329)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 37096)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9181 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 50)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 39174)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 11078)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Aunu‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Aunu‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1979) (p. 275)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 106)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 41699)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 43303)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nama Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll   Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Marshall 63 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nomwin (Nómwiin) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll native
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 241 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 8)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2005) (p. 15)
Common.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pingelap Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 109)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2466 (US), Kanehira 785 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 45)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3980 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4078 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 222 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 101 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 110 (NY, PTBG), R. Gallen 53 (NY, PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2466 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka 3542 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 34968)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 38734)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 38941)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 48897)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46689 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island native
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46898 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 168-169)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 890
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Makongai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 168-169)
Voucher cited: Tothill 855
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mamanuthas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 168-169)
Voucher cited: O. & I. Degener 31975
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 168-169)
Voucher cited: Smith 820
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 168-169)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 267, 406; Degener 14303, DA 12664 (Melville et al. 7039), Smith 9604, DA 7367, DA 5942, DA 6058
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 168-169)
Voucher cited: DA 13650
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: St. John 14933 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: Quayle & Curtis 419 (BISH), St. John 14487 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7392 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39593)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6697 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39431)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39592)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42409)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 325)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12108 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 325)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 64816 (US), Fosberg 64820 (US)
Rare in thickets.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 325)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 11852 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 325)
Vouchers cited: BRY 26497, BRY 26510
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 325)
Voucher cited: BRY 26542a
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 325)
Voucher cited: BRY 26038
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: P. Birnbaum 1 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9126 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 1383 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tepoto Nord Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11418 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6004 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 127-128)
Voucher cited: MacGregor 396
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1437)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1437)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1437)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1437)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1437)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Also f. domestica (Makino) Makino et Nemoto
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll possibly introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 40)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
Jaffré, T./Morat, P./Veillon, J-M./Rigault, F./Dagostini, G. (2001) (p. 44)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
abo. intro.
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 231)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169797, CHR 169799, CHR 169803
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 45)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 51)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9646 (BISH), Yuncker 9668 (BISH), Yuncker 9895 (BISH), Yuncker 9998 (BISH), Yuncker 10020 (BISH), Yuncker 10107 (BISH)
"Common in thickets throughout the island".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 49)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1060)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 99999994)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 107)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 115)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 95)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 215-216)
In thickets at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3070)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 45)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 66)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Soakai 639
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Vouchers cited: Scarth-Johnson 20, Scarth-Johnson 66, Buelow 460
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 82)
"Frequent throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Vouchers cited: Parks 16140, Yuncker 15383, Hotta 4524
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 82)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15383
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15088, Hotta 5654!, Hotta 6909 (n.s.), Buelow 87, Whistler 6765
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 82)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15088
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3287)
Taxon name on voucher: Dioscorea bulbifera
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 352)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Buelow & Sykes 213
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Buelow 2138
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Vouchers cited: Hurlimann 650, Kirch 205, Kirch 347
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 82)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 650
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Hurlimann 425
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 82)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 425
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 88)
Vouchers cited: Crosby 253, Hotta 4972!
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 82)
Cited: Crosby
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 26)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 45)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed forest margins, river banks, valley sides; near sea level to 2300 m. S Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Henan, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 368)
In secondary forests.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 191)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 152)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 34)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed forest margins, river banks, valley sides; near sea level to 2300 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 20)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Alabama, Louisiana, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control:  Control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Additional information:
Information from the publication "Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control".
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Species profile from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center.
Information from the Bugwood Wiki.
Article from "Wildland Weeds".
Another article from "Wildland Weeds".

Additional online information about Dioscorea bulbifera is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Dioscorea bulbifera as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Dioscorea bulbifera may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Anon. 1988. Weed list for American Samoa by cropping system. Checklist dated 07/13/88, origin unknown. 3 pp.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM115(Berry, P. 6).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1978. Voucher specimen #BNM1060(Canfield, J.E. 595).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1991. Voucher specimen #BNM99999994(C. Tellei, A. Sorge, J. Anson s.n.).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. 2001. Plant invaders. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. 241 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1969. Plants of Satawal Island, Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 132. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 13 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. 1969. A collection of plants from Fais, Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 133. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Hunsberger, A. G. B. 2001. Invasive and banned plants of Miami-Dade County. U. of Fl. Extension. 3 pp.

Jaffré, T./Morat, P./Veillon, J-M./Rigault, F./Dagostini, G. 2001. Composition and characterisation of the native flora of New Caledonia. Documents Scientifiques et Techniques, II4, IRD, Centre de Noum&#eacute;a, 121 p.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2005. Botanical survey of the Yela River valley, Kosrae, F.S.M. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii. 19 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. 1989. An Annotated list of the vascular plants of Pulawat Atoll. Micronesica 22:23-63.

Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. 1975. The natural history of Namoluk Atoll, eastern Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 189. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 53 pp + photos.

Merlin, M./Juvik, J. 1996. Irá me neeniier nón Chuuk: Plants and their Environments in Chuuk. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp. .

Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. 1996. Giddi nge gakiiy nu Wa‘ab: Plants, People and Ecology in Yap State. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 463 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of Southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. 93 p.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 0. Voucher specimen #PTBG38941(R. Gallen 53).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1992. Voucher specimen #PTBG41699(Art Whistler 8398).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1998. Voucher specimen #PTBG34968(M. J. Balick 3980).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2000. Voucher specimen #PTBG38734(M. J. Balick 4078).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG35329(David H. Lorence 8828).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG34766(David H. Lorence 8773).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG35135(David H. Lorence 8705).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG37096(Diane Ragone 2001-17).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG39174(Stephanie Dunbar 033).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Porcher, Michel H. 2013. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne, Australia. Online resource.

Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. 2003. Botanical and ethnobotanical inventories of the National Park of American Samoa. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii and Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, Department of Botany, University of Hawaii. 91 pp.

Setchell, William Albert. 1924. American Samoa; part I. Vegetation of Tutuila Island. part II. Ethnobotany of the Samoans. part III. Vegetation of Rose Atoll. The Carnegie Institution of Washington. 275 pp. + illus.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

St. John, Harold. 1988. Census of the Flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43. Honolulu, Hawaii. 34 pp. [Privately published].

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1981. The vegetation of Late, Tonga. Allertonia 2(6):323-353.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1979. A study of the vegetation of eastern Samoa. A dissertation submitted to the graduate division of the University of Hawaii in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Botanical Sciences. 325 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1980. The vegetation of eastern Samoa. Allertonia 2:45-90.

Whistler, W. A. 1983. Weed Handbook of Western Polynesia. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn. 151 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands: The plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia 5(4):347-424.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.

Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. 1997. Botanical survey of the Huvalu Forest Conservation Area, Niue. Unpublished technical report. 76 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1945. Plants of the Manua Islands. Bishop Mus. Bull. 184. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 73 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.