Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Digitaria horizontalis
Willd., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Jamaican crabgrass

French: gros meinki

Spanish: pata de gallina

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Erect grass with awnless spikelets in digitately arranged panicle branches bearing scattered hairs" (Whistler, 1988; p. 50).

"Annual with decumbent, spreading, branching, stoloniferous culm bases and erect floriferous shoots mostly 30-50 cm tall.  Sheaths hispid or pilose with long, spreading hairs.  Ligules 1.0-1.5 mm long. Blades thin, flat, mostly 5-15 mm broad, finely pilose on one or both surfaces.  Panicles with 5-15 slender, unbranched primary branches, at least the lower ones in verticils of 3-6.  Branch rachis usually with a few scattered, papilla-based hairs as much as 5-6 mm long.  Spikelets 2.0-2.5 mm long.  First glume usually absent, the second glume about half as long as spikelet, pilose on margins and tip.  Lemma of lower floret with 5 equidistant nerves, with a few soft hairs on the margins"  (Howard, 1979; pp. 106-107).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "A common weed of fields and waste places in the tropics of the world" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 844-846). "A weed of disturbed, often sandy sites" (Howard, 1979; pp. 106-107).

In American Samoa and Samoa, "common to abundant in crops and sunny disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 50).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mexico, Central and South America; naturalized in Africa and the United States (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3448
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 16356)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria horizontalis
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 80)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Española Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Genovesa Group
Genovesa Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Rábida Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: D. H. Lorence, L. M. Dunn, J.-Y. Meyer 9334 (P, PAP, PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38248)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria horizontalis Willd.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530, 1907)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1530)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Herbst 696 (BISH)
Forming extensive mats in abandoned pineapple fields.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Whistler 28
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Whistler 2151
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 16
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 145)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 797 (K), Soddart 846 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 14)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 127)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island native
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52066 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: Gwynne & Wood 946 (EA), Gwynne & Wood 1025 (EA)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2685
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 172)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2371 (K)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Alabama, Mississippi
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 15 APR 2013.