Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Delonix regia
(Bojer ex Hook.) Raf., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk, score: -1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Poinciana regia Bojer

Common name(s): [more details]

Carolinian: fáyárbaw, nfayarbaw

Chamorro: arbol del fuego, arbol del fuego, atbot, atbot, atbut

Chinese: feng huang mu

Chuukese: meei flower

English: falsa acacia, flambouyant, flamboyant, flame of the forest, flame tree, peacock flower, poinciana, red tree, royal poinciana

Fijian: sekoula

French: flamboyant, pacayer

Hawaiian: ‘ohai ‘ula

I-Kiribati: te tau, te tua

Japanese: howoboku

Maori (Cook Islands): marumaru, pātai, pū pī, puka kai, rākau tāmarumaru

Nauruan: bin

Niuean: pinē

Palauan: nangiosákura, nangyo

Pohnpeian: pilampwoia weitahta

Samoan: elefane

Spanish: árbol del fuego, atbot det fuegu, flamboyán

Tahitian: pakai, puke, ra‘ar marumaru

Tongan: ‘ohai

Tongarevan: pātai

Tuamotuan: faefae

Tuvaluan: fuaitansanga, fuatausaga

Ulithian: warapig

Wallisian: ‘ohai

Yapese: sakuranirow

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A medium sized, deciduous, broad-crowned ornamental tree of rapid growth; leaves mostly 30-60 cm long, with 10-20 pairs of pinnae, these about 10 cm long, each with 25-35 pairs of small medium green glabrous slightly oblique oblong-elliptic leaflets each about 1 cm long (thus the whole leaf with anything from 800 to 2400 leaflets); stipules pinnate, with 3-6 leaflets; flowers in corymbose racemes near branch-tips; flowers brilliant red, the uppermost petal streaked with yellow or yellow-and-white; petals stalked, their distal part abruptly expanded, orbicular, with wavy-crinkled edges, each about 4-6 cm long; stamens declined together, curving out and down; pod woody, up to 50 cm long, flattened, parallel-edged, straight, pendent, dark reddish-brown turning black, filled within between the seeds, many-seeded, dehiscent, shortly beaked at tip; seeds oblong, gray with pale margins"  (Stone, 1970; p. 313).

Description from Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  "Widely planted as an ornamental. It can form dense canopies that can exclude native species" (Smith, 2002; p. 18).

Arid lowlands and moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 73).  In Hawai‘i, "widely cultivated and sparingly naturalized in low elevation, dry to mesic, disturbed sites, at least on Moloka‘i"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 664).  In Fiji, "cultivated and infrequently naturalized from near sea level to an elevation of about 500 m"  (Smith, 1985; p. 90).  In New Caledonia, "introduit de bonne heure et très largement planté, se naturalise peu" (MacKee, 1994; p. 74). On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), "spreading almost monospecific stands...develop around parent trees within disturbed marginal rainforest...and along roadsides...  Although slow to spread, these patches are very competitive with the native vegetation..."  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 33).  In the Northern Territory [Australia], "it has invaded coastal monsoon vine thickets that have been damaged by cyclones" (Cowie, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 108).

Propagation:  Seed; often planted by humans. "Seedlings germinate thickly under parent trees and rapidly form monospecific stands which compete strongly with other plants, possibly assisted by allelopathic exudations" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 33).  Pods can be spread by floodwaters (Smith, 2002; p. 18).

Native range:  Madagascar; widely cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 3383, Bryan 922, Bryan 1358
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1633 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Bonham 18 (US, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Naturalized
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23139)
Taxon name on voucher: Delonix regia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 80)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 92)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 310 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 16)
Uncommon, roadside near Utwe.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 76)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Evans 372 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 90)
Voucher cited: Smith 8312
Infrequently naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 90)
Vouchers cited: Gillespie 4379, DA 12191, DA 16478
Infrequently naturalized.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4168 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   University of California (2006)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 147)
Voucher cited: Moore 384
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 147)
Voucher cited: BRY 25354
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2385 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9057 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Brooks & Brooks 87 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 38)
One tree.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 23)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6218 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 313-314)
Voucher cited: Stone 4122 (GUAM)
Some local naturalization.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 664)
Sparingly naturalized.
Kiribati
Banaba Island
Banaba (Ocean) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 24)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Aranuka Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Beru Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Marakei Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Moul, Edwin T. (1957) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Moul 8296 (US)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 74)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1988) (p. 12)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39898)
Taxon name on voucher: Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 100)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36638 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 79)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 145)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58620 (US), Thaman & Manner 121 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 74)
Vouchers cited: Baudouin 320 s.loc., Baudouin 641 s.loc., de Pompéry s.n. s.loc., MacKee 27865; var. flavida Stehié; voucher cited: MacKee 42411
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 56)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169764, CHR 169765
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (pp. 60-61)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10031 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 11)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 444)
Taxon name on voucher: Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 221)
Ornamental tree. Planted and self-sown.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 266)
Extensively cultivated as an ornamental shade tree.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 63)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 52)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 136)
Voucher cited: Hülimann 379
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080607-01
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 34)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 106)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 106)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 136-137)
Ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 32)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 33, 112)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 6)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 33)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 4, 7)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 21)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 123)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 150)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3126 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 51)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Groupe d'Aldabra introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)

Comments:  Widely planted as an ornamental in Micronesia, especially on Saipan, and elsewhere in the Pacific. Some naturalization is occurring, but mostly as isolated trees.

Control: 

Chemical:  Larger trees can be cut and the stumps treated with glyphosate to prevent resprouting. Systemic herbicides, either as a foliar or basal spray may be effective on smaller plants.

"Pending the results of field trials seedlings should be sprayed with 2% Roundup plus Pulse in clean water when in full leaf, and saplings and trees either cut stump treated or stem injected with 50% Roundup in clean water or basal bark treated with 10% Garlon 600 in diesel oil" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 33).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 18 MAR 2012.