Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Datura stramonium
L., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: man tuo luo

English: common thorn-apple, datura, false castor-oil, jimson weed, moonflower, purple thorn-apple, thorn apple

French: datura stramoine, herbe des taupes, pomme épineuse

Hawaiian: kīkānia, kīkānia haole, lā‘au hānō

Hindi: hurhur

Japanese: shirobana-chosen-assgao

Spanish: chamico, chamico azul, datura manzana, estramonio, manzana espinosa, miyaya, peo de fraile, tapa, tapete, toloache

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stout, malodorous, erect annual herbs; stems branched above, glabrous or sparsely pubescent with simple hairs.  Leaves simple, rhomboid to angularly ovate, in juvenile phase large and coarse, later leaves often 8-16 cm long, 4-10 cm wide, margins coarsely doubly lobed, apex acute to acuminate, base oblique, rarely equal, petioles 3-11 cm long.  Flowers solitary in stem forks, peduncles 6-10 mm long, pedicels stout, 7-20 mm long; calyx angularly tubular, 5-lobed, 3-4.5 cm long, the lobes 0.6-0.8 cm long; corolla white or tinged lavender, 5-lobed, the lobes rounded, 6-9 cm long, separated by sinuses and terminated by a pointed tip; stamens 5; anthers white or purple, 3-4 mm long, opening by slits; ovary 2-celled; style 4-5.5 cm long; stigma 2.5 mm long, 2 mm wide, included.  Capsules erect, narrowly ovoid to ovoid, 2.5-4 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, opening by 4 valves when ripe, the valves 6-10 mm long, covered with numerous conical spines of various lengths, the persistent calyx base 4-10 mm long, reflexed, margins irregular.  Seeds numerous, black or dark brownish gray, angularly D-shaped, 3-4 mm long, coarsely pitted, embryo curved, endosperm present"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1257).

Habitat/ecology:  "The weed requires disturbed sites for establishment and thus is found on cultivated land, in animal camps, barnyards, on roadsides, and in areas laid waste by man's activities.  It prefers rich soil and plentiful rainfall but can survive in sandy pastures and many such difficult places" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 275).

"Usually in disturbed soil along trails and roadsides or at margins of cultivated fields and in abandoned agricultural land; from Transition to Miconia zones in the Galápagos Islands" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; p. 464-465). In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, disturbed sites, 0-690 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1257).  In Fiji, "sparingly naturalized near sea level as a weed of waste places and canefields"  (Smith, 1991; p. 32).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed.  "It is spread in agricultural seedstocks, in field grains, in the packed soil on the wheels and frames of farm machinery, and in the mud that clings to the fur and feathers of animals.  Capsules and seeds can float for 10 hours" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 275). "Seeds long-lived with 91% germination after 39 years of burial"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Native range:  North America (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1257). Probably native to Mexico but exact native range obscure; widely naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 208)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 21)
"Naturalised and occasional". Vouchers cited: J.L. Boorman (NSW), J.D. McComish 145 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"Naturalised and occasional". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes 784/87 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 182 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. stramonium and var. tatula
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. stramonium and var. tatula
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. tatula
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. tatula
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
vars. stramonium and tatula
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Wolf, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. tatula
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. stramonium and var. tatula
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. stramonium
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. stramonium and var. tatula
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 32-33)
Voucher cited: Seemann 348
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 32-33)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 686
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 32-33)
Voucher cited: DA 8989
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1257)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1257)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1257)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1257)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1257)
New Caledonia
Îles Chesterfield
Îles Chesterfield introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 130)
Voucher cited: Godard in Veillon 6454
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 130)
Vouchers cited: Cherrier in MacKee 36067, Thomas in MacKee 38698
Spontané
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 141-142)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1124)
"Very occasional on Raoul Island".
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 240)
Infrequent. Cited: Crosby.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 120-121)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 283)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 283)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Near houses, roadsides, grasslands; 600-1600 m. Throughout China. Cultivated in gardens as a medicinal and decorative plant.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 218)
Ornamental.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
var. stramonium and var. inermis (Juss ex Jacq.) Schinz & Thell
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Probably native
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1124)
"Waste places such as roadsides, building sites, old gardens, as well as cultivated ground, sometimes abundant on recently disturbed ground but often only as isolated plants".
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 273)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 137)

Control: 

Physical:  "Isolated plants can be manually removed before fruiting.  Larger infestation in arable lands can be cultivated prior to seed set"  (Motooka et al., 2003)..

Chemical:  "Effective pre-emergence herbicides are atrazine or dicamba.  Seedlings and larger plants can be sprayed with dicamba, 2,4-D or bromoxyril"  (Weber, 2003; p. 137).  "Young plants susceptible to hormone-type herbicides and glyphosate and to soil-applied tebuthiuron.  Also sensitive to metsulfuron"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 3 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 21 MAR 2013.