Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Dalbergia sissoo
Roxb. ex DC, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 21 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Amerimnon sissoo (Roxb. ex DC.) Kuntze

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yin du huang tan

English: Indian dalbergia, Indian rosewood, shisham, sissoo, sisu

French: ébénier juane

Habit:  tree

Description:  "An erect deciduous tree to 20 m high with a 2 to 3 m girth, trunk often not straight or regularly branched; reproducing by seed and suckers. Stems: Young shoots downy, drooping; established stems with light brown to dark gray bark to 2.5 cm thick, shed in narrow strips; large upper branches support a spreading crown. Leaves leathery, pubescent when young, glabrous later; alternate, to 8 cm long, comprising 3 to 7 leaflets, broadly elliptical to obovate. Flowers white to yellowish white, pea-like, to 2 cm long, fragrant, nearly sessile; formed in axillary clusters. Fruit an oblong pale brown pod to 10 cm long, 1 cm wide, thin and strap-like, end rounded with a minute point, glabrous, contains 1 to 4, usually 2 or 3 seeds. Seed: Brown, flat, almost oblong,1 cm long and 4 mm wide. Root: A long taproot and numerous surface roots which produce suckers" (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 472-473).

Habitat/ecology:  Moist tropics and subtropics to 1000 m. "Growth is most prolific in tropical and sub-tropical climates, particularly in areas where there is considerable soil moisture (but not waterlogged soils).  In the Northern Territory [Australia], it grows mostly on sands and gravels along watercourses, sometimes spreading into the drier forests and plains." (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; p. 106).

Propagation:  Seeds, but most commonly locally by root suckers. Can form dense thickets.

Native range:  Oman to Myanmar; cultivated elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: BT 4230 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7213 (PAP), J. Florence 7656 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 546516)
Taxon name on voucher: Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 82)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 33912, MacKee 36673, Cherrier in MacKee 44455
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 106)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 106)
Isolated populations.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated; 900-1500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 142)
Ornamental, timber.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 32)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated; 900-1500 m".
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Declared a noxious weed in the Northern Territory, Australia (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; p. 106).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Chemical: Picloram as a cut stump, basal bark or stem injection (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 472-473).

Additional information:
Fact sheet from the US Forest Service (PDF format).
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.

Additional online information about Dalbergia sissoo is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Dalbergia sissoo as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Dalbergia sissoo may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 546516 (Florence, J. 7213).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Hunsberger, A. G. B. 2001. Invasive and banned plants of Miami-Dade County. U. of Fl. Extension. 3 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Parsons, W. T./Cuthbertson, E. G. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne/Sydney. 692 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 21 MAR 2013.