Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cyrtostachys renda
Blume, Arecaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cyrtostachys lakka Becc.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hsing hsing yeh tzu

English: lipstick palm, maharajah palm, sealing wax palm

Thai: kap daeng, mark-dang

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Slender, clustering tree palm with up to c. 3 or more adult stems up to 15 (-20) m high. Stem c. 6-10 cm in diameter, green with greyish stripes or yellow with somewhat greenish and purplish stripes, internodes 15-24 cm long, crown appearing shuttle-cock shaped. Leaves 7-10 in crown, erect, stiff, to 150 cm long; sheath tubular, c. 100 cm long, forming distinct crownshaft, scarlet to bright red, with scattered black thick scales; petiole elongate, 5-50 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm wide and 1-2 cm thick at the base, channelled adaxially, rounded abaxially, red, indumentum as sheath; leaflets regularly arranged, leathery, 26-40 leaflets on each side, 56-107 x 3-6 cm at middle portion, apical leaflets 10-20 x 1-2 cm, briefly pointed with long tip and sometimes notched at apices, green, discolorous when dried, glaucous adaxially, waxy white abaxially, mid-vein with discontinuous membranous brown scales. Inflorescence strongly divaricate, to 90 cm long, branched to 2 (possibly 3) orders, creamy, green to dark purplish-red; peduncle 5-8 cm long; rachilla 27-73.5 cm long and 4-6 mm in diameter, calyx persistent on rachillae when fruits fallen off; pits 2-5 mm in diameter, 5-7 pits per 1 cm rachilla length. Staminate flowers 2-2.5 x 2-3 mm, asymmetrical; sepals 1.8-2 x 2 mm, imbricate, rounded, strongly keeled; petals 1-2 x 1-1.8 mm, triangular, brown at apex and base; stamens 12-15; filaments 0.7-1 x 0.2-0.3mm; anthers 1-1.5 x 0.5-0.8mm; pollen size, long axis 36-43 μm, short axis 27-33 μm, proximal wall thickness 1.5-2 μm, distal wall thickness not observed, tectum surface microfossulate-rugulate, trichotomosulcate grains present; pistillode 0.7-1 x 0.2-0.5 mm, trifid. Pistillate flowers 4-5 x 3-4 mm; sepals 3-4 x 2-3 mm, imbricate, strongly keeled, dark brown to black; petals 3-3.5 x 2-2.5 mm; gynoecium 3.5 x 1.5 mm (including three recurved stigma 0.5-1 mm); staminodes circular, 0.5-1 mm height. Fruits 7-10 x 4-7 mm, ellipsoid to ovoid, light green becoming black when ripe. Seeds 4-5 x 3-5 x 3-5, ellipsoid to ovoid"  (Heatubun, 2009, in Palmnet).

"Sex:  Monoecious.  Trunk: Clustered, to 15 ft. tall [sometimes taller]; slender, smooth, surmounted by crownshaft tinged with red.  Petiole:  Very short, 6 in long; bright scarlet.  Leafbases, which form crownshaft, are 2 ft. long and scarlet-tinged.  Leaf: Pinnate; arcing; 50 leaflets.  Leaflets: 18 in. long; slender; strong midrib and veins; glaucous beneath.  Flowerstalk: Below laves; 1-2 ft. long; branched; green, turning red.  Fruit: 2/5 in. long; oblong ovoid, black with scarlet base.  Seed: Ovoid [to round]; 1/3 in. long" (McCurrach, 1960; p. 74).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grows in lowland peat swamp forest, especially in coastal areas, but more rarely occurs in peat swamps in uplands from 0-500 m above sea level"  (Heatubun, 2009, in Palmnet).  "In Malaya, this plant grows in water in wet woods by tidal rivers" (McCurrach, 1960; p. 74).  "Plants will grow in shade or full sun and require plenty of water at all times" (Jones, 1995; pp. 205-206).

Propagation:  Seed (McCurrach, 1960; p. 74).

Native range:  Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo (Jones, 1995; pp. 205-206).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 36)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Sumatra
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 112)

Additional information:
Information and photos from Palmpedia.

Additional online information about Cyrtostachys renda is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Cyrtostachys renda as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Cyrtostachys renda may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Jones, David L. 1995. Palms throughout the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. 410 pp.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

McCurrach, J. C. 1960. Palms of the world. Harper, New York.

Palmweb. 2013. Palmweb: Palms of the world online.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.


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This page was created on 19 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 10 FEB 2013.