Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cyperus cyperoides
(L.) O.Kuntze, Cyperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Kyllinga sumatrensis Retz.; Mariscus sumatrensis (Retz.) J. Raynal; Mariscus umbellatus Vahl; Scirpus cyperoides L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zhuan zi miao

English: Pacific island flat sedge

Kwara‘ae: baubau

Niuean: motie pako, pako

Samoan: ta‘ata‘a, tuise

Tahitian: mo‘u upo‘o taratara

Tongan: pakopako

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "Perennials. Rhizomes short, hardened. Culms laxly tufted, 10-60 cm tall, acutely triquetrous, smooth, base swollen and with more leaves. Leaves shorter than to equaling culm; sheath brown to reddish brown; leaf blade 3-6(-8) mm wide, folded at basal part but apically gradually flattened, margin not scabrous. Involucral bracts 5-8, obliquely spreading, leaflike, longer than inflorescence. Inflorescence a simple or subcompound anthela; rays several, 6-12 or sometimes more, short or 6-14 cm, unequal in length, each with 1-5 spikes. Spikes cylindric, 1-2.5[-5] cm x 5-10 mm or sometimes narrower, with many dense spikelets. Spikelets narrowly linear-ovoid, 3-7 x ca. 0.7 mm or sometimes shorter, spreading to reflexed, each (1 or) 2- or 3-flowered; rachilla wings white, lanceolate, broad, hyaline. Glumes yellow, yellowish green, or greenish, oblong, ca. 3 mm, veins several with middle 3 green and conspicuous, margin involute, apex obtuse and not mucronate. Stamens 3; anthers broadly linear, 0.8-1 mm; connective prominent beyond anthers. Style short; stigmas 3, slender. Nutlet straw-colored at first but dark brown when mature, narrowly oblong, 1.8-2.2 x ca. 0.5 mm, ca. 2/3 as long as subtending glume, 3-sided, minutely punctate"  (Flora of China online).

"Tufted herb, culms to about 50 cm tall, thickened at the base; leaves 10-20 cm long, 3-5 mm wide; inflorescence of several spikes, these up to 10-12 cm long though usually shorter; spikelets crowded, spreading at right angles to the rachis, lanceolate, 4-6 mm long"  (Stone, 1970; p. 168).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "a naturalized adventive, occurring infrequently between sea level and 900 m, on open grassy slopes and river banks, and in coconut plantations" (Smith, 1979; p. 256).  "Uncommon to occasional in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 44). In Papua New Guinea "A common sedge of open or lightly-shaded situations, and a weed of pastures and plantations" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 30).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Tropical Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia, Malesia, and northern Australia" (Smith, 1979; p. 256).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Garber 647, Yuncker 9132, Whistler 1404
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9132 (BISH), Garber 647 (BISH); subsp. cyperinus: Garber 649 (BISH), W. Harris 121 (BISH), W. Harris 32 (BISH)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) native
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 69)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59222
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 65-66)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 65-66)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41351)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus cyperoides
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 42671)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus cyperoides
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 65-66)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 121)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 41)
Naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 256)
Voucher cited: DA 8899
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 256)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 176, 176A; Gillespie 4178; DA 7300, 7310, 7312, 7852
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence, D.H. Lorence, S.P. Perlman & W.L. Wagner 9595 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 36)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12147 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 17)
Found once, not seen in 1985. Voucher cited: Raynal 17821
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2190 (PAP), J. Florence 4718 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 36)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3687 (PAP), P. Morat 6947 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5271 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 36)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7639 (PAP); as Mariscus sumatrensis (A.J. Retzius) J. Raynal: J. Florence 7639 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9028 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6105 (PAP), J. Florence 9184 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11130 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 168)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 65-66)
Native per Stone, introduced per Fosberg.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Strong, Mark T./Wagner, Warren L. (1997) (pp. 40-41)
Voucher cited: Hosaka 1558 (BISH)
Naturalized, but present status unknown.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 227)
Vouchers cited: CHR 150599, CHR 150600
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 44)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9670 (BISH), Yuncker 9739 (BISH)
"A common weed along roadsides and in waste areas".
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 24)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 30)
In New Guinea from low altitudes to at least 2000 m; troublesome as a weed at higher elevations.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 44)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 62)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 86)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 108
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 69)
"Occasional throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: Hürlmann 37
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 352)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: Hürlmann 564
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 86)
Voucher cited: Crosby 173
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island native
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 44)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Sunny places on mountain slopes, grasslands along trails, ditch margins, river margins, wet places, forests, among herbs, sometimes in dry places; 100-1000 (3200) m. Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xisha Qundao, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 318)
As Mariscus umbellatus Vahl. On grassland of hillslopes.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 31)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Sunny places on mountain slopes, grasslands along trails, ditch margins, river margins, wet places, forests, among herbs, sometimes in dry places; 100-1000 (3200) m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 MAR 2013.