Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cyperus cyperinus
(Retz.) Suringar, Cyperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Kyllinga cyperina Retz.; Mariscus cyperinus (Retz.) Vahl

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: suo zhuang zhuan zi miao

English: long-headed sedge, old world flatsedge

French: cyperacee à grosse tete, cyperacee à tete

Pohnpeian: rehlingkarak

Tahitian: mou upo tutu, mo‘u upo‘o, mue mue

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "Perennials with short, woody rhizomes clothed with brown fibers; culms solitary or few together, erect, 20-70 cm tall, trigonous, smooth, thickened at base.  Leaves several, basal, herbaceous, blades linear, shorter than the culm, 5-7 mm wide, flat, plicate; sheaths pale green, tinged purplish pink.  Inflorescences umbelliform, simple, open or sometimes nearly head-like, the rays 6-10, 0-5 cm long, the spikes green, terminal and solitary on each ray, cylindrical or oblong, narrowed at base, 1.5-3 cm long, 8-12 mm wide, densely bearing numerous spikelets; involucral bracts 4-10, the lower few longer than the inflorescence; spikelets bearing 4-7 glumes and 1-2 (3) fertile flowers, spreading to ascending, linear-lanceolate, subterete, 4-6.5 mm long, ca. 1 mm in diameter, rachilla winged, jointed above the prophyll; glumes green, glaucous, and eventually tinged yellowish brown, membranous to thin and chartaceous, appressed, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 3-3.5 mm long, 1-1.2 mm wide, inrolled, 3-4-nerved on both sides of midnerve, the keel green, convex, apex obtuse or abruptly acute; style slightly more than 2 mm long.  Achenes linear-oblong, trigonous, ca. 2 mm long, ca. 0.8 mm wide" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1416-1417, 1900).

"Tufted herb, culms to about 50 cm tall, with small basal tubers; leaves sometimes longer than culm, inflorescence of several short, nearly cylindrical spikes (sometimes sessile); bracts elongate; spikes 5-10, each nearly 2-2.5 cm long; spikelets about 4.5 mm long, 2-3-flowered, crowded, directed obliquely upward; achene shorter than glumes; trigonal, reddish-brown"  (Stone, 1970; p. 168).

Habitat/ecology:  "Uncommon to occasional in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 43). In Hawai‘i, "occurring in open, grassy sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1416-1417). In Fiji, "it occurs near sea level on seashores, roadsides, and hillsides, and in open places, villages and rice fields" (Smith, 1979; p. 256).  In Tonga, "occasional in low, wet areas" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 68-69).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Indo-malaysia to the Bonin Islands and eastern Australia (Stone, 1970; p. 168). Fosberg et al. (1987; p. 65) lists as native to Micronesia. "A common weed of the Paleotropics, Australia, and many Pacific islands" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1416-1417).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 37085)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus cyperinus (Retz.) J. V. Suringar
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Garber 649, Yuncker 9132, Whistler 1387, Whistler 3331, Whistler 3599
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 22996)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus cyperinus
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 110)
As Mariscus cyperinus Vahl.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2326 (US), Fosberg 31571 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1900 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 15)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2300 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1837 (US), Falanruw 1830 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1977) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Lamoureux 4879 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Moore 303 (US), Anderson 532 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L, P), Anderson 554 (US), Bonham 6 (US, BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1796 (US), Evans 2420 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Lorence 9390 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 121)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2396 (US), Glassman 2425 (US), Glassman 2722 (US), Kanehira 768 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 41)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 26406 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58419 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2396 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2425 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2722 (BISH), R. Hobdy 1623 (BISH), R. Lengsi 53 (NY) L. Stemmermann 2943 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 841 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 906 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 1006 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 256-257)
Voucher cited: Milne 281
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 256-257)
Voucher cited: DA 8912
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 256-257)
Vouchers cited: DA 8754, DA 12030
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 256-257)
Vouchers cited: DA 10741, DA 7826, DA 729, DA 1326, DA 7773, DA 429
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yanutha Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 256-257)
Voucher cited: DA 9034
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 256-257)
Voucher cited: St. John 18171
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12161 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 321)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63052
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11692 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 17)
Found once, not seen in 1985. Voucher cited: Raynal 17828
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 321)
Voucher cited: St. John 14207
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 321)
Voucher cited: Grant 5403
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2082 (PAP), J. Florence 2194 (PAP), J. Florence 4806 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 321)
Voucher cited: BRY 26463
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3437 (PAP), J. Florence 10366 (PAP), J. Florence 11871 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10515 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 321)
Vouchers cited: Florence 3337, BRY 26052
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2840 (PAP), J. Florence 3337 (PAP), J. Florence 4453 (PAP), J. Florence 8802 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38265)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus cyperinus (Retz.) J. V. Suringar
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5723 (PAP), J. Florence 5785 (PAP), J. Florence 5827 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11245 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 321)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 321)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5566 (PAP), J. Florence 5943 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11139 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 168)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3827 (GUAM), Stone 4104 (GUAM), MacGregor 418, Nelson 239, Moore 109, Bryan 1233, Rodin 675, Moran 4533
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1416-1417, 1900)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island native
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 34)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr, Starr & Wysong 040331-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1416-1417, 1900)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1416-1417, 1900)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1049)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus cyperinus (Retz.) Sur.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 160)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus cyperinus
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 24)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
In similar situations to Cyperus cyperoides.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 112)
At low and medium altitudes, in open waste places, old clearings, etc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 43)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 89)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 86)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 101
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 68-69)
"Occasional throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 86)
Vouchers cited: Parks 16147, Parks 16375
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 86)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 15524
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 68-69)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15229
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 86)
Vouchers cited: Crosby 175, Soakai 1062 (ID?)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 68-69)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16033
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 58)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island native
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 43)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Dense forests, wet places on mountain slopes, grasslands, river margins, water margins, valleys; (near sea level to) 300-700 (1800) m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 318)
As Mariscus cyperinus Vahl. On moist grassland of valleys and hillslopes.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 31)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Dense forests, wet places on mountain slopes, grasslands, river margins, water margins, valleys; (near sea level to) 300-700 (1800) m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 MAR 2011.