Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cupressus sempervirens
L., Cupressaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cupressus atlantica Gaussen; Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus; Cupressus horizontalis Mill.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: di zhong hai bai mu

English: Italian cypress, Mediterranean cypress

French: cyprès commun, cyprès d'Italie

Spanish: ciprés común, ciprés italiano, ciprés mediterráneo

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees to 30 m tall; bark grayish brown, shallowly fissured; branches ascending or horizontally spreading; branchlets not arranged in a plane, ultimate ones 4-angled, ca. 1 mm in diameter. Leaves in 4 ranks, densely appressed, dark green, not glaucous, 0.5-1 mm, ridged abaxially, without a conspicuous abaxial gland, apex obtuse or subacute. Pollen cones 4-8 mm. Seed cones yellowish gray when ripe, subglobose or ellipsoid, 2.5-4 x 2-3 cm; cone scales 8-14, each fertile scale with 8-20 seeds"  (Flora of China online).

"Tree to 150 feet tall; branchlets slightly flattened, displayed in single plane along primary branches.  Leaves 0.04 inches long, dull green, slightly differentiated into flat facial leaves and wraparound lateral leaves.  Pollen cone cylindrical, 0.1-0.13 inches long, brownish.  Seed cone subglobose, 0.8-1.4 inches in diameter, not glaucous, scales 6-14, center with inconspicuous knob.  Seeds ca 0.2 long, dark brown; cotyledons 2"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; pp. 64-65).

Habitat/ecology:  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 35 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter; humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month).  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed.  In Hawaii, "seed cones seldom develop at lower, warmer elevations, although they are produced abundantly at 2,000-4,000 feet"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 65).

Native range:  Libya, Greece, Cypress and the Middle East; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 480, 526, 553)
Voucher cited: Danton H(1558)1320. "Está presente, por lo que sabemos, en un solo jardin del pueblo de San Juan Bautista".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 5)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 65)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 506832)
Taxon name on voucher: Cupressus sempervirens L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 115362)
Taxon name on voucher: Cupressus sempervirens L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 65)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 115371)
Taxon name on voucher: Cupressus sempervirens L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 65)
Vouchers cited: J. Bernier 371, J. Bernier 373, MacKee 38844
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Jiangsu
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 44)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)


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This page was created on 15 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 17 MAR 2013.