Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Crotalaria spectabilis
Roth, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Crotalaria sericea Retz.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da tuo ye zhu shi dou

English: cat's bell, rattlebox, rattlepod, showy crotalaria, showy rattlebox, showy rattlepod, silent rattlepod

French: crotalaire remarquable

Hawaiian: kolomona

Palauan: kuroteraria

Tongan: ha‘apai

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Shrub with simple narrow obovate leaves; floral bracts cordate leaflike; calyx glabrous, smaller than corolla, cleft more than halfway to base; corolla purple, pods glabrous."  (Stone, 1970)"Annual herbs; stems erect, up to 20 dm long, ridged, glabrous or nearly so.  Leaves simple, elliptic, rhombic-obovate, or oblanceolate, 5.5-14 cm long, 2.8-7.4 cm wide, veins 6-11 on each side of midvein, upper surface glabrous and slightly punctate, lower surface sparsely to densely appressed pubescent, apex rounded and often mucronate, base cuneate, petioles 4-7 mm long, stipules triangular, up to 10 mm long.  Flowers 15-27 mm long, 15-40 in terminal or axillary, somewhat lax inflorescences, rachis 13.5-42 cm long (incl. peduncle), bracts ovate, 8-15 mm long, spreading, usually persistent, bracteoles at or below mid-pedicel, ovate to triangular; calyx glabrous, the tube 5.5-7.5 mm long, the lobes 5.5-10 mm long, lateral lobes distinct at apex; petals yellow, standard 12-16 mm long, 14-18 mm wide, wings broadly oblong, 9-12 mm long, 7.5-11 mm wide, keel petals short, beak twisted and ciliate, margins ciliate; elongated anthers 2.5-3.1 mm long, short ones 0.7-1 mm long.  Pods brown or dark brown at maturity, 3.2-4 cm long, nonstipitate, glabrous.  Seeds ca. 22 per pod, dark brown, up to 4.5 mm long, smooth.  Differs from Crotalaria retusa in its large bracts and glabrous calyx."  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 663).

Habitat/ecology:  "Not much is known about showy rattlebox in its natural habitat. It grows on roadsides and disturbed areas in Florida (Long and Lakela 1976), and in Puerto Rican coastal sands and limestone rubble in areas receiving about 1650 mm of annual precipitation (author's observation) and at the edge of mangroves (Liogier 1988). Parrotta (2001) reports that it is common along stream banks in deciduous forests in India. The species is a weed of agricultural crops in the Southern United States (Bradley and Hagood 2002). It is intolerant of shade and does not grow under a forest canopy. The species seems to favor sandy soils (McGregor 1976), grows well in alkaline soils, and at least tolerates moderate soil salinity.  Showy rattlebox is well nodulated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (McGregor 1976)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed areas, ca. 50-120 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 663).  In Tonga, "uncommon in disturbed areas" (Whistler, 1988; p. 23).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern and southeastern Asia; also cultivated and naturalized thoughout the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 23983)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria spectabilis
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 23989)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria spectabilis
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7893 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21111)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria spectabilis Roth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 107)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 91)
Voucher cited: M.J. Balick 4085 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 42753)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria spectabilis
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 107)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7296 (PAP), J. Florence 8484 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9683 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 49)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 329)
Not seen, based on Fosberg record.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 107)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 663)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 663)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 663)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 663)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 663)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 239 (BISH)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 107)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 144)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58647 (US), Swarbrick 9579 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 82)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 305, de Pompéry s.n., Däniker 52, MacKee 4638, Suprin 1987, Toutain 3927 (NOU), MacKee 45502
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 59)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1249)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria spectabilis Roth
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3007)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria spectabilis Roth
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3170)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria spectabilis Roth
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 107)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 22781)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria spectabilis
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 60)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 23)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 104)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Montane grasslands, along trails; 100-1500 m".
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Montane grasslands, along trails; 100-1500 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 MAR 2013.