Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora
(Lemoine) N. E. Br., Iridaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: autumn gold, crocosmia, garden montbretia, montbretia, Portuguese lily

Spanish: patas de gallo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Plants 25-50 (-100) cm tall, with corms 2-3 cm in diameter and slender scaly stolons.  Leaves narrowly lanceolate, 30-50 cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide.  Spikes slightly flexuous, arching horizontally, with several branches, bracts 6-10 mm long; tepals orange, lanceolate, 15-25 mm long, 6-9 mm wide, subequal, spreading, the perianth tube slightly curved, 10-15 mm long; filaments 15-22 mm long; anthers 6-8 mm long.  Capsules up to 7 mm long, ca. 9 mm wide.  Seeds brown, wrinkled, usually not viable" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1446).

Habitat/ecology:  "Montbretia can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions - it grows in any soil, wet or dry, poor or rich, in sun or shade. It can be seen on roadsides, wasteland and the disturbed edges of bushland. However, it thrives along creeklines and watercourses where it spreads with great vigour, fed by nutrients in the stormwater, and competes fiercely with all other plants, including other weeds.  Montbretia displaces native creekline plants. It moves rapidly down watercourses into sensitive bushland. The mass of corms in the soil contributes to the breakdown of creek banks, erosion and siltation. Responsible for serious habitat loss"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized along trails and roadsides primarily in mesic to wet forest, 170-1,200 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1446).

Propagation:  "It spreads solely vegetatively by stolons and corms" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1446).  "Each plant bears a string of flattened corms under the ground, up to 14 or more, each capable of producing another plant. Also produces rhizomes, and in some situations a mass of fine fibrous roots is also formed.  Spreads vigorously by corm production, and perhaps by seed. Rhizomes produce new plants. Corms wash down watercourses to form new infestations. The plant is also dispersed by the movement of soil containing corms, and is frequently dumped on bushland edges"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).

Native range:  "Of horticultural origin, now widely naturalized along roadsides and thickets in tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1446).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"This garden plant has escaped from cultivation on the Island, presumably as a garden throw-out, and is now reproducing itself by the production of corms and stolons". Voucher cited: J.G. Conran 637 (K, NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 465, 552)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 465, 552)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1446)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1446)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1446)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H60802 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1446)
Voucher cited: Rock 4010 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Harley, Barbara (2009)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 364)
Ornamental.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 121)
"On roadsides and waste land, a garden escape well-naturalised", voucher cited: H. Carse (CHR 3531).
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Control: 

Physical:  "Dig out very small sites. Usually futile in large spots as corms resprout. Dispose of corms at a refuse transfer station, by burning or by deep burial. 

Chemical:  1. Weed wipe (full leaf stage): 1g metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg + 100ml glyphosate +20 ml penetrant /L. 2. Spray (full leaf stage): glyphosate (10ml/L) + metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (4g/10L) + penetrant"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


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This page was created on 13 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 23 AUG 2011.