Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Conyza sumatrensis
(Retz.) E. Walker, Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Conyza albida Willd. ex Spreng.; Erigeron sumatrensis Retz.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: su men bai jiu cao

English: broadleaf fleabane, fleabane, Guernsey fleabane, tall fleabane

Fijian: matakaro, tho ni papalangi, tho ni vavalangi, thovuka, tumbua, wavuwavu

Tongan: pakaka

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs, annual or biennial, 80-150 cm tall; roots fusiform. Stems erect, thick, branched above middle, densely leafy, densely gray-white strigose, sparsely hirsute. Leaves: basal withered at anthesis, lower cauline petiolate, blade oblanceolate or lanceolate, 6-10 x 1-3 cm, surfaces densely strigose, especially abaxially, base attenuate, margin usually coarsely 4-8-serrate per side, apex acute or acuminate, mid and upper reduced, blade narrowly lanceolate to linear, margin serrate or entire. Capitula 5-8 mm in diameter, numerous, in large and long paniculiform synflorescences; peduncles 3-5 mm. Involucre campanulate to urceolate, ca. 4 x 3-4 mm; phyllaries 3-seriate, gray-green, linear-lanceolate or linear, abaxially scabrous, apex acuminate, outer short or ca. 1/2 as long as inner, inner ca. 4 mm, margin scarious. Ray florets numerous, 4-4.5 mm, lamina yellowish or purplish, short, filiform, apex 2-denticulate; disk florets 6-11, yellowish, ca. 4 mm, tube sparsely puberulent. Achenes linear-lanceoloid, compressed, 1.2-1.5 mm, strigillose. Pappus white, later yellowish brown"  (Flora of China online).

Similar species: Conyza bonariensis

Key to the species (Smith, 1991; pp. 307-308):

C. bonariensis: "Newly exposed receptacles of old heads (2-) 2.5-4.5 mm across, not angular pitted or rarely with 2-3 pits in centre; mature heads 5-6 mm long."

C. sumatrensis:  "Newly exposed receptacles of old heads usually 1.5-2.5 (-3) mm across, angular pitted with projecting points at the angles, sometimes pits and pit margins eroded with age; mature heads 4-5 mm long."

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "from near sea level to 900 m, naturalized on sand dunes and on open hills among ferns and reeds, along roadsides, and in forested areas along streams" (Smith, 1991; pp. 307-308).  In New Zealand, "mostly waste places, also other disturbed sites, coastal areas, forest margins and pasture"  (Webb et al., 1988; 188).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Indigenous in South America, but now widely adventive; sometimes also considered indigenous in southeastern Asia and Malesia by authors who distinguish Conyza sumatrensis as a distinct taxon.  It was probably an early arrival in Pacific archipelagoes, possibly an inadvertent aboriginal introduction in some areas." (Smith, 1991; pp. 307-308).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 18)
Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1948 (K), A.C. Beauglehole 5645 (MEL), L.A.S. Johnson & A.N. Rodd 1222 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: P. Ralston 35 (K); W.R. Sykes NI 927 (CHR); 1889 & 1902, I. Robinson (NSW)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 927. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Milne 111. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Nairai Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Milne 157. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Milne 206. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Milne 238. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Seemann 261. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Totoya Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Milne 73. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Vouchers cited: DA 10513, Harwood 94. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Graeffe s. n. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 246, Greenwood 410, Smith 4264, Parks 20623, DA 10672, Barclay s. n. See comment below.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wakaya Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
Voucher cited: Milne 375. See comment below.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Schmid 1000 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Schmid 2304
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45906
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Bourret 703 (NOU), Hoff 921, MacKee 42506
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 3)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Common weed of grasslands on slopes, open places, roadsides, streamsides; 100-2500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 278-279)
In wasteland.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 188)
As Conyza albida Sprengel
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Common in open, waste fields and construction sites from lowlands to 2,000 m".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 110)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  Fiji specimens are listed as C. bonariensis by Smith (1991; pp. 307-308), who states that it might be better classified as C. sumatrensis. They are listed here as C. sumatrensis.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Conyza sumatrensis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Conyza sumatrensis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Conyza sumatrensis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Anon. 1988. Weed list for American Samoa by cropping system. Checklist dated 07/13/88, origin unknown. 3 pp.

Ching-I Peng, ed. 2013. Digital flora of Taiwan (online resource).

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarenes Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18 (1):51-61.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 23 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 14 MAR 2013.