Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Conyza canadensis
(L.) Cronquist, Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Erigeron canadensis L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xiao peng cao

English: blood-stanch, butterweed, Canada fleabane, Canadian fleabane, Canadian horseweed, colt's tail, fireweed, flea wort, fleabane, hairy horseweed, hogweed, horseweed, mare's tail, mule tail, pride weed, small-leaf horseweed

Fijian: mandramandra

French: herbe gandi, vergerette du Canada

Hawaiian: lani wela

Japanese: himemukashiyomogi

Spanish: altabaca, canem bord, cola de zorra, hierba del caballo, jarilla, olivarda, venadillo, zamarraga

Habit:  herb

Description:  "A slender erect herb, winter annual or biennial, with a long taproot; stem a few cm to more than 3 m in height, nearly smooth or bristly hairy, unbranched at base, branched near top with many small flower heads; leaves alternate but numerous, often appearing opposite, may be light or dark green depending on habitat, without petioles, basal and lower stem leaves 2.5 to 10 cm long, 1 cm wide, strap-shape, entire or toothed, medium and upper stem leaves smaller, sessile, entire, very narrow, soft hairy at first but becoming harsh on older leaves, some southern Africa types almost glabrous both surfaces but margins rigidly and shortly ciliate; flower heads small, numerous on many short branches at top of stem, about 5 mm in diameter, head or capitulum very fluffy at maturity; involucre composed of  2 or 3 series of very small, pointed, greenish bracts 2.5 to 5 mm long; receptacle flat, 1.2 to 2.5 mm broad when bare, ray florets very short, inconspicuous, usually concealed by slightly longer involucral bracts around each flower, greenish white to lavender, pistillate, more than 100 per head, about as long as disk florets; disk florets numerous, perfect, yellow; fruit a dry indehiscent achene, cylindrical, elongated, broadest above the middle, somewhat tapering toward scar that has attached light-colored collar, apex truncate, surface is longitudinally grooved and has scattered white hairs, color a greenish, yellowish brown, 1.3 mm long by 0.3 mm wide, pappus of 10 or up to 265 hairs, brownish yellow, 1.5 to 3 times longer than achene.  The crushed leaves and other plant parts have the faint odor of carrots" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 228).

"Erect herb to 1" m tall; basal leaves oblanceolate; upper leaves linear, entire, ciliate at base, up to 10 cm long; heads numerous, filiform-pedunculate, in elongated axillary racemes combined into a terminal panicle; involucre 2.5-4 mm long, the bracts somewhat puberulent, with narrow scarious margins and a purplish spical spot; florets rather few, white, very small; achenes smooth, less than 1 mm long, the pappus 3 mm long"  (Stone, 1970; p. 577).

Habitat/ecology:  Especially common on limestone soils on Guam (Stone, 1970; p. 577).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in relatively dry, disturbed areas"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 288, 1859).  In Fiji, "from near sea level to 850 m, adventive and sometimes locally common on sandy soils near coast, sand dunes, and open grassy hills, in villages, gardens, and waste places, and along roadsides" (Smith, 1991; pp. 306-307).  In Niue, "a common weed in plantations and elsewhere if the ground is exposed" (Sykes, 1970; p. 64).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seed.

Native range:  "Northeastern US to the Caribbean basin and Mexico, widely adventive elsewhere" (Smith, 1991; pp. 306-307).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Moore 307 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
var. pusilla. Voucher: BMW 5813 (BISH, BRI)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 67)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 67)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
?
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 306-307)
var. pusilla. Vouchers cited: DA 11761, DA 11410, Greenwood 1164, DA 2920, Greenwood 921, DA 10672, DA 11329
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 577)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3788 (GUAM), Stone 4239 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 32)
Var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronq. Voucher cited: Starr, Starr, Higashino, Bruch & Bryce 050208-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 34)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1988) (p. 15)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1985) (voucher ID: PTBG 43320)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 34)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31169, Fosberg 36646, Herbst 8887, Whistler 11248
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31169 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 5)
"Common; ruderal areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 70)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 38)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronq.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A10)
Common to abundant; in fields and ruderal areas Mili, near former residences Tokewa, Nallo.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 1)
var. pusila (Nutt.) Cronq. Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0513200915
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49771)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis var. pusilla
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 7986, MacKee 45473, MacKee 45808
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: CHR 170429
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 9)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 41)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 53)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4402)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis (L.) var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1996) (voucher ID: BNM 26367)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 48179)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis var. pusilla
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 99999995)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 53)
Voucher: Lorence 9770 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 256)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 254)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 255)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 62)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 53)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 226)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 226)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Soakai 917
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-6)
var. pusila
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 16)
var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronq.; voucher cited: Herbst & Takeuchi 9072 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-6)
var. pusila
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-6)
var. pusila
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 897a (US), Fosberg 43536 (US), McFarlane 75 (US), McFarlane 79 (US)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Common weed of open places, field margins, roadsides, dry streamsides; sea level to 3000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 278)
In wasteland.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 226)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
var. canadensis and var. glabratus Gray
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 190)
"Waste places, dry open gullies".
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 226)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 226)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"From sea level to 800 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 226)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 226)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 9)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37887)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronq.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  var. pusilla in Micronesia (Fosberg et al., 1979; p. 285).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 21 JAN 2007.