Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Conyza bonariensis
(L.) Cronquist, Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Erigeron bonariensis L.; Erigeron crispus Pourr.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Argentine fleabane, bonar horseweed, flax-leaf fleabane, hairy fleabane, hairy horseweed, large horseweed, wavy-leaf fleabane

Hawaiian: lani wela

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or biennial herbs. Stems erect, 20-50 cm tall, branched upward, lateral shoots regularly overtopping main axis after appearance of heads, coarsely pilose and hirsute. Leaves densely arranged, pilose on both surfaces; basal leaves often withered at anthesis; lower leaves narrowly oblanceolate or oblong, 5-14 x 0.5-2 cm, apex acute, base attenuate, sessile, margins coarsely serrate-dentate or pinnatifid with up to 5 teeth or lobes on each side; upper leaves smaller, linear-lanceolate, nearly entire. Heads many, 4-6 mm long, 5-7 mm wide, pedunculate, in terminal racemose-panicles. Involucre urceolate, bracts in 3 or 4 series, linear lanceolate, acute, herbaceous, densely pubescent, subequal or outer ones shorter, inner bracts 3-4 mm long, outer bracts ca. 2 mm long. Outer florets numerous, in 6-7 marginal rows, corolla white, filiform-tubular, 2-2.2 mm long, ligule minute, obscure; style ca. 2.5 mm long, slightly longer than pappus. Central disc florets 12-20, corolla 3-3.5 mm long; upper part narrowly cylindric, longer than lower filiform part, 5-lobed, yellowish. Achenes oblong to oblanceolate, ca. 0.5-1 mm long, 0.2-0.3 mm thick, compressed, ribbed on both sides, minutely pubescent, pale umber. Pappus 1-seriate, united at base, tawny or reddish, capillary, bristles subequal, 3-3.5 mm long at maturity"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

"Annual herb to 50 cm high or more, pubescent, with the lower leaves oblanceolate, more or less coarsely dentate; upper leaves linear; heads in racemes or racemose panicles; involucre gray-pubescent, about 5 mm long; ray-florets usually rather many, white, with the corolla shorter than the pappus"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 576-577).

"Plants 1-10 (-15) dm tall, often branched near base or unbranched, densely pubescent.  Leaves numerous, usually grayish green, lower ones up to 15 cm long and 2 cm wide, becoming progressively smaller upward, usually 3-6 cm long and 0.5-1 cm wide, coarsely serrate.  Heads usually numerous; involucre 4-6 mm high, densely pubescent; ray florets 50-200 or more per head, pistillate, rays ca. 0.5 mm long; pappus yellowish brown to reddish, in a single series, usually shorter than or equaling the inner florets"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 288).

Similar species: Conyza sumatrensis

Key to the species (Smith, 1991; pp. 307-308):

C. bonariensis: "Newly exposed receptacles of old heads (2-) 2.5-4.5 mm across, not angular pitted or rarely with 2-3 pits in centre; mature heads 5-6 mm long."

C. sumatrensis:  "Newly exposed receptacles of old heads usually 1.5-2.5 (-3) mm across, angular pitted with projecting points at the angles, sometimes pits and pit margins eroded with age; mature heads 4-5 mm long."

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "a common weed in various urban and nonurban areas, generally in relatively dry habitats, sometimes in disturbed mesic to wet forest" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 288).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  South America; exact native range in Americas obscure; widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 9)
Rare per Whistler
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 18)
"A cosmopolitan weed". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 2751 (NSW); J. Pickard 2795 (NSW); 1898, J.H. Maiden (NSW); 1920, J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 7)
"A cosmopolitan weed". Vouchers cited: J.D. McComish 138 (K), R.O. Gardner 5768 (AK)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 28)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Moore 375 (US), Moore 310 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 67)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
?
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 307-308)
See Conyza sumatrensis
French Polynesia
Clipperton Island
Clipperton (Arue, Avera) Island   Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 93)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Totegegie Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence, S.P. Perlman & M. Teikiteetini 9355 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 9213)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza bonariensis
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 61142
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11652 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64869 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 73)
Voucher cited: C. Cartier 150
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 8230 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 150 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 229 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Moore 381, BRY 26465
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10382 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 16)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Florence 6966, Grant 3545
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6966 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 53)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 54587 (US), Fosberg 63775 (US), Raynal 18020 (P)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Sachet 1990 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.Florence 1298 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Vahanga Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.Florence 6253 (PAP), J.Florence 6390 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.Florence 6005 (PAP), J. Florence 9181 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 576-577)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 11)
Occasional in lawn areas.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 9)
Hairy horseweed can be found scattered over most of the island, especially the west side.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 20)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Tern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 6)
This weed is found scattered everywhere.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Japan (offshore islands)
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 31147)
Taxon name on voucher: Conyza bonariensis
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 334)
Voucher cited: St. John 23708
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (pp. 33-34)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31168, Fosberg 31171
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31168 (US), Fosberg 31171 (US)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Scully 133N (US)
New Caledonia
Hunter Island
Île Hunter introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 33-34)
Voucher cited: Monzier in Veillon 6929
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 33-34)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2048
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 33-34)
Voucher cited: Hmakone & Sam in MacKee 25825
New Caledonia
Matthew Island
Île Matthew introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 33-34)
Voucher cited: Douheret in MacKee 38662
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 33-34)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard 791, Melle Kiener 3 s.loc., Brousmiche 183 s.loc., Veilon 3415 (NOU), MacKee 45573
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 33-34)
Voucher cited: Germain s.n.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 189)
"Waste places, especially stony sites, cultivated land".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 87)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 26)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 41)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 285)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 661 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10761 (PAP)
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Soakai 532
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Soakai 76
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: Graeffe 1428, Soakai 558
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Harvey s.n., Soakai 887
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 60)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 288)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-6)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 19)
Rare along roadsides. Voucher cited: Fosberg 34463.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 15)
Common in places. Voucher cited: Sachet 897 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34463 (US)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 3)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 278)
In wasteland.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 189)
"Waste places, especially stony sites, cultivated land".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 28)
Weed of uncertain origin
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 98)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Local in lowlands and littoral regions".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 110)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 12)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 MAR 2013.