Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Colocasia esculenta
(L.) Schott, Araceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Arum esculentum L.; Caladium esculentum (L.) Vent.; Colocasia antiquorum Schott

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: suni

Chinese: yu

Chuukese: eot, oat, óni, oot, sawa, wodj, woot, woot, yoot

English: cocoyam, dasheen, dry taro, eddo, elephant's-ear, madumbe, small taro, sweet taro, taro, true taro

Fijian: dalo, dalo ni vuci, mba, mboka, mbotiki, ndalo, ndoko, nggau, qau, rourou, soli, suli, sulo, votuki

French: arouille carri, colocasie, songe, songe blanc, songe sauvage

Hawaiian: kalo

I-Kiribati: te taororo, te taroro

Korean: toran

Kosraean: kohtahk, taka

Kwara‘ae: alo, hui ni kerekere, tiko

Malayan: daun keladi

Mangarevan: pocea, taro, veo

Maori (Cook Islands): māmio, taro, wāwā

Marshallese: jibabwãi, katak, kõtak, kotāk

Mokilese: jawa

Nauruan: de taro

Niuean: talo

Palauan: bisupsal, dait, kukau

Pingelapan: sewa

Pohnpeian: enisohpoadok, onni, sauk, sawa, sawah

Pukapukan: wāwā

Samoan: talo, talo, talo Niue

Satawalese: wot omalu

Spanish: alcocaz, colocasia, malanga, papa China, taro, tayoba

Tahitian: taro

Tokelauan: talo

Tongan: talo, taro

Tongarevan (spoken): talo

Tongarevan (written): taro

Tuvaluan: talo

Ulithian: ioth

Wallisian: talo, talo

Woleaian: uot, woot

Yapese: lak, mal, mul, uot, wot, wot

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Acaulescent herbs up to 1 m tall. Leaf blades glaucescent on lowe3r surface, ovate-cordate to sagittate-cordate, peltate, 25-45 cm long, 12-32 cm wide, anterior lobe 3-4 times longer than posterior lobes, posterior lobes connate 1/3-3/4 their length, venation dark purple to yellow on lower surface, green on upper surface, primary lateral veins 3-8 per side, petioles terete, sheathed in basal 1/2, 40-180 cm long, green, green splotched with purple, or purple, fading to pink near base. Inflorescences 2-7 together, peduncles 15-50 cm long; spathe linear-lanceolate, (10-) 15-40 cm long, constricted 4-6 cm from base to form a greenish, oblong tube, the limb deflexed, yellowish; spadix exserted, 1/4-1/3 as long as spathe, 6-14 cm long, pistillate portion up to 2.5 cm long, sterile staminate portion constricted, 1.5-5 cm long, fertile staminate portion 2-4 cm long, with a shorter and narrower sterile appendage. Berries ellipsoid, 3-5 mm in diameter. Seeds ovoid, 1.2-1.5 mm long, 0.7-1 mm wide" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1357).

Habitat/ecology:  "Riparian habitats, marshes.  Vegetative growth leads to dense populations and its large leaves shade out native vegetation.  Extensive stands of this herb alter the vegetational structure and dynamics of riparian plant communities. Growth seems to be best in the silty soils lining the river-banks" (Weber, 2003; p. 114).

In Hawai‘i, "found persisting outside of cultivation" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1357).

Propagation:  "The plant spreads vegetatively, and plants in the introduced range rarely produce inflorescences.  Rhizome fragments are easily carried by streams, and floods can dislodge bud-laden rhizomes from the banks"  (Weber, 2003; p. 114).

Native range:  Thought to be native to India (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1357).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Garber 1100 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 37105)
Taxon name on voucher: Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 16)
Vouchers cited: Bryan 1364, Diefenderfer s.n.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 108)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 204)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 21)
"Naturalised from cultivation here and there". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 3335 (NSW), A.N. Rodd 1436 & J. Pickard (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
"Cultivated". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 442 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 662(CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 848 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 478, 524, 552)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/365)1709. "Esta planta presenta hojas anchas y fuertes rizomas carnosos (es el taró polinesico) crece en lugares húmedos y bordes de esteros. Esta en via de naturalzación en el pueblo de San Juan Bautista y debe ser limitada y luego vigilada de muy muy cerca".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 17-18)
Voucher cited: Anderson 413 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 17-18)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31376 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59040
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Nassau Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Etal (Ettan) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
East Fayu Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Losap Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nama Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Juvik, J. (1996) (pp. 77-78)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll   Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nomwin (Nómwiin) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pulusuk Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 307 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 6)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Ant Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pingelap Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 108)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: M. J. Balick 4126 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 125 (NY, PTBG), F. Sohl 36 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 118 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 231 (BISH), Takamatsu 280 (BISH), Takamatsu 751 (BISH), Takamatsu 769 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 34892)
Taxon name on voucher: Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 42797)
Taxon name on voucher: Colocasia esculenta
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Eauripik Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 112)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Evans 385 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Lamotrek Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46863 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
cultivated
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 456-457)
Vouchers cited: Barrau 573, DA 815
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: St. John 14695 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: St. John 14661 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence, L. Dunn, S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 9029 (PAP)
Naturalized locally.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 9)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 9)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 19)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 9)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 307)
Voucher cited: Moore 351
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Manuae (Scilly) Atoll (Society Islands) introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 9)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 9)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 307)
Voucher cited: Grant 4633
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Sachet 54644 (US); "not seen in 1982"
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 16)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island probably introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 120)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1357)
Persisting outside of cultivation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1357)
Persisting outside of cultivation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1357)
Persisting outside of cultivation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1357)
Persisting outside of cultivation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1357)
Persisting outside of cultivation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1357)
Persisting outside of cultivation.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Var. aquatilis (Hassk.) Kitam. ex M.Hotta
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 18)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
?
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tabiteuea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jabat (Jebat) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 2)
"Uncommon; a few small plantings by houses, in Bikini Projects camp; some plants seemingly growing without cultivation into wetland area just north of school".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 104)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Lae Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Lae Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34013 (US)
Persisting in taro pits.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Namu Atoll   Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 24)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. ii)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3637
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 2)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Aur Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Aur Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 281)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 24)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 26)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 281)
Voucher cited: St. John 21416 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A4)
Occasional; food crop planted by homes, Mili.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 40-41)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 27825
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 17)
Vouchers cited: Balansa s.n., MacKee 40312
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 77)
"Damp to wet waste land".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 156)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 222)
Voucher cited: CHR 169957
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (pp. 28-30)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9985 (BISH)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 15)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4465)
Taxon name on voucher: Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 91)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 75)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 186-187)
Cultivated, not a native.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & R. Clark 11307
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 75-76)
"Throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Ellison, Joanna C. (1990) (p. 29)
On outlier islets of Pangaimotu, Oneata and Ata
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 352)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 10)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
cultivated
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
var. antiquorum. Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 25)
var. antiquorum
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 2)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated usually near farmhouses or in water fields; also naturalized or perhaps native in wet places in forests, valleys, swamps, wastelands, and at watersides.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 299)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 94)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 77)
"Damp to wet waste land".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 28)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely cultivated usually near farmhouses or in water fields; also naturalized or perhaps native in wet places in forests, valleys, swamps, wastelands, and at watersides.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 110)
Garden escape.
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 31)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 1, 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 14)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 13)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   McIntyre, Guy (1991) (p. 39)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 113)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 146)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52115 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 46)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Escaped from cultivation and naturalized on Isla Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; p. 786).

Control: 

Physical:  Pull or dig out.

Chemical:  Spray with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 114).

Additional information:
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).

Additional online information about Colocasia esculenta is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Colocasia esculenta as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Colocasia esculenta may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

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Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2006. Plants of Kili Island, Marshall Islands. Unpublished checklist. 12 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2007. Arno plants [preliminary working listing of plant species]. Unpublished checklist, 13 pp.

Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian. 2010. Survey of Invasive Plant Species and Other Plants of Mili Atoll, Marshall Islands. USDA Forest Resource Management Grant Program. Unpublished report. 6 pp, plus tabulation of plants of Mili Atoll, 23 pp.

Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. 2013. Flora of Micronesia. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Wester, Lyndon. 1985. Checklist of the vascular plants of the northern Line Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Reseach Bulletin 287:1-38.

Whistler, W. A. 1983. The flora and vegetation of Swains Island. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 262. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 25 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1984. Annotated list of Samoan plant names. Economic Botany 38:464.489.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.

Wiggins, I. L./Porter, D. M. 1971. Flora of the Galapágos Islands. Stanford University Press. 998 pp.

Woodroffe, C. D. 1985. Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 283. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 18 pp. + maps, photos.

World Health Organization. 1998. Medical plants in the South Pacific. Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila. 254 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1945. Plants of the Manua Islands. Bishop Mus. Bull. 184. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 73 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 20 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 16 JAN 2011.