Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Coffea arabica
L., Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk (based on second screen), score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: cafe, kafé

Chinese: xiao li ka fei

English: Arabian coffee, arabica coffee, coffee, coffeetree

Fijian: kofe, kove

French: café, cafeier, caféier d' Arabie

Mangarevan: cape

Maori (Cook Islands): kaope, kaope Maori

Marquesan: kafe

Niuean: kofe

Palauan: kohi

Samoan: kofe, kofe

Spanish: café, cafeto, cafeto arábico, cafeto de Arabia

Tahitian: taofe

Tongan: kofi

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small tree or shrub; leaves dark glossy green, oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate-oblong, acute to acuminate, acute at base, midrib prominent on both surfaces, lateral nerves 7-13 pairs, commonly 5-20 cm long, on petioles about 1 cm long; axils with several short triflorous cymes, pedicels about 4 mm long; bracts deltoid 3 mm long; corolla white, fragrant, 7-10 mm long, usually 5-lobed; anthers 7-8 mm long; fruit red, ellipsoid or oblong, 2-3 (-5)-celled (rarely 1-celled)" (Stone, 1970; p. 542).

Habitat/ecology:  "The native range of coffee lies at 1,370 to 1,830 m in elevation (Wrigley 1988). In higher latitudes, altitude becomes less critical. Optimum temperatures range from 15 to 24° C. Growth is impaired above 25° C. The species requires a minimum of 1200 to 1500 mm of annual precipitation. Precipitation in excess of 2500 to 3000 mm begins to be detrimental (Wrigley 1988). Although the species tolerates soil pH's from 4 to 8, pH's of 5.2 to 6.2 are preferred. Good drainage is essential, and soil textures lighter than clays are best (Willson 1985). Coffee is tolerant of shade and usually grows in the forest understory. Also, it will grow well and is often cultivated in full sun"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

"Prefers deep, fertile soils associated with rainforest areas in tropical or sub-tropical climates" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 102). Shade-tolerant, seedlings come in under the forest canopy. 

In Hawai‘i, "widely cultivated and well naturalized by the mid-1800s primarily in mesic to wet, disturbed sties, usually valleys or along streambeds, often locally abundant, 30-580 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1362-1363).  In Fiji, "cultivated and sparingly naturalized along roads and in forest along creeks from near sea level to an elevation of 900 m"  (Smith, 1988; pp. 223-224). In the Galápagos Islands, "cultivated in the wetter belts on some of the larger islands..., escaped and reproducing spontaneously in the forest, especially in areas abandoned and allowed to revert to jungle" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 430-432).

Propagation:  Seeds, often dispersed by birds, fruit bats and rats (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 102).

Native range:  Ethiopia, Kenya and Sudan; widely cultivated and sometimes naturalized in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 21)
"An escape from cultivation, naturalised to a limited extent". Vouchers cited: A.N. Rodd 1723 (K, NSW); 1898, J.H. Maiden (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"An escape from cultivation, naturalised to a limited extent". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 451 (CHR); 1902, J.H. Maiden & J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 28)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 263)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 263)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 79)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 85)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 91)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 97)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Voucher: Flynn 7000 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 173845)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 173846)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 342)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 23)
Heavily naturalized at Keplewan.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 263)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 92)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 127)
Voucher cited: M. Takamatsu 770 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 263)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 223-224)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 1219, DA 11707, Smith 4437, Gillespie 3835, Gillespie 3976, Degener 14722, DA 11723, H.B.R. Parham 205, DA 11637, Gillespie 2514, DA 12173, DA 15600, Parks 20166
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 15516)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 15517)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 15519)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 33519)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 173865)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173866)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173867)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173868)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 173869)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1951) (voucher ID: BISH 173870)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173871)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 173872)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: St. John 14709 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: St. John 14486 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: St. John 14765 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence, W.L. Wagner, J. Florence, Y. Sé'chan & S. Bishop 6145 (PAP), J. Florence 7330 (PAP), D.H. Lorence, L. Dunn, S.P. Perlman, K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 9033 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 546546)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 7928)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 23585)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39341)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4158 (PAP), J. Florence 4247 (PAP), J. Florence 4420 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554384)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 555116)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 555147)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39393)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39581)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7261 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 130)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 232)
Voucher cited: BRY 25431
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 64)
Vouchers cited: Gillette 10 (US), Fosberg 64881 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Gillette 10 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 614425)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 614945)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 232)
Voucher cited: Florence 4781
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2241 (PAP), J. Florence 4781 (PAP), J.-C. Jolinon 1346 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 22323)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492573)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 493279)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599278)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599280)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 232)
Vouchers cited: Moore 240, BRY 26626, BRY 26636
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3438 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 232)
Voucher cited: Florence 3889
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3889 (PAP)
Naturalisée.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 494008)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 554209)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5686 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553013)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6079 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552841)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 542)
Naturalized in a few places.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 263)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1120-1121)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1120-1121)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1120-1121)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1120-1121)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1120-1121)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1120-1121)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1120-1121)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 263)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 102)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 122)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 2650, Lauri 178 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 122)
Vouchers cited: Baudouin 239 s.loc., Grunow s.n. (W), Compton 469 (BM), Cayla s.n., Baumann 14423, MacKee 21979, Fallen 182 (NOU), MacKee 38078; var. "Café Leroy", vouchers cited: Cherrier in MacKee 36066, MacKee 38075
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 122)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 40587
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 135)
Relic of cultivation.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 460)
Died out naturally.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 175)
Uncommon
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 23)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 112)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10199 (BISH)
"Occasional in thickets as an escape".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 41)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 263)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 263)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 533, 535)
Cultivated in both large and small quantities.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 543)
Widely scattered in cultivation.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: St. John 15034
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83836)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417413)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 72)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 52)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 251)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15226
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 173822)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 173823)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 65)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Erromango Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 173864)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea arabica L.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
naturalisée
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 102)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in moist, usually cool tropical regions; 200-700 m.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 262)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Java
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in moist, usually cool tropical regions; 200-700 m.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/subspontané"
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52130 (US)

Comments:  Some naturalization reported in Guam.

Parham (1972; p. 45) reports considerable naturalization on the edges of forests and along hill tracks up to 300 m in Samoa.

C. robusta and C. liberica also naturalize.

Control: 

Physical: Seedlings may be hand-pulled.

Additional information:
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Fact sheet from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions" (PDF format)

Additional online information about Coffea arabica is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Coffea arabica as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Coffea arabica may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1926. Voucher specimen #BISH 173822 (Setchell, W.A. 15425).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173866 (Gillespie, J.W. 3976).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173867 (Gillespie, J.W. 3976).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173868 (Gillespie, J.W. 3835).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173871 (Parks, H.E. 20166).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 173872 (Gillespie, J.W. 2514).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 173864 (Kajewski, S.F. 368).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 173845 (Wilder, G.P. 951).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 173846 (Wilder, G.P. 951).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 173865 (Degener, O. 14722).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 173869 (Smith, A.C. 4437).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1951. Voucher specimen #BISH 173870 (Greenwood, W. 1219).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 173823 (Yuncker, T.G. 15226).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 15516 (Koroiveibau, D. 11723).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 15517 (Parham, J.W. 11707).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 15519 (Parham, J.W. 11637).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 22323 (Smith, H.M. 45).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 33519 (Koroiveibau, D. 15600).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 83836 (Whistler, W.A. W 186).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417413 (Whistler, W.A. W 1136).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 493279 (Florence, J. 2241).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 599278 (Fosberg, F.R. 60998).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 599280 (Fosberg, F.R. 60998).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 494008 (Florence, J. 3889).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 554384 (Florence, J. 4420).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 555116 (Florence, J. 4158).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 555147 (Florence, J. 4247).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 492573 (Florence, J. 4781).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 552841 (Florence, J. 6079).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 553013 (Florence, J. 5686).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 554209 (Florence, J. 6955).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 614425 (Gillette, J. 10).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 614945 (Fosberg, F.R. 64821).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 546546 (Florence, J. 7330).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1983. Natural history of Cousin Island. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Francis, John K., ed. 2009. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory (online resource).

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Humphries, S. E./Stanton, J. P. 1992. Weed assessment in the wet tropics world heritage area of north Queensland. Report to The Wet Tropics Management Agency. 75 pp. plus plates.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Little, Elbert L./Skolmen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). USDA Agriculture Handbook 679. Washington, D.C. 377 pp. + plates.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG342(Tim Flynn 7000).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Parham, B. E. V. 1972. Plants of Samoa. New Zealand Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research Information Series No. 85, Wellington. 162 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Porcher, Michel H. 2013. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne, Australia. Online resource.

Smith, Albert C. 1988. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 4. 377 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

St. John, H. 1987. An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island with new Pandanus species. Pacific Plant Studies 46. Honolulu, 65 pp. [Privately published].

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Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34:447-462.

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Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

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Whistler, W. A. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands: The plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia 5(4):347-424.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Wiggins, I. L./Porter, D. M. 1971. Flora of the Galapágos Islands. Stanford University Press. 998 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 MAR 2013.