Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Clidemia hirta
(L.) D.Don, Melastomataceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 27 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Melastoma hirtum L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: clidemia, Koster's curse, soap bush

Fijian: aurioi in siga, bona na bulamakau, kaurasinga, kauresinga, mara na bulumakau, mbona na mbulamakau, ndraunisinga, roinisinga, vuti

French: bombon bleu, canot-macaque, clidémie hérissée, rou'i, tabac-boeuf

Palauan: kúi, kui

Pohnpeian: riahpen rot

Spanish: camasey, camasey peludo

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs 0.5-3 m tall; young branches rounded, hirsute.  Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, 5-16 cm long, 3-8 cm wide, 5-nerved, upper surface sparsely strigose, lower surface finely bristly, margins ciliate, subentire to crenulate-denticulate, apex acute to short-acuminate, base rounded to subcordate, petioles 0.5-3 cm long.  Pedicels 0.5-1 mm long in fruit; hypanthium 3-3.5 mm long, moderately to sparsely finely bristly, usually with a mixture of gland-tipped and stellulate hairs; receptacle bearing a conspicuous ring of fimbriate scales surrounding style; calyx lobes broadly ovate to truncate in fruit, ca. 0.5 mm long, the linear external teeth projecting 2-4 mm; petals 8-11 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, glabrous; staminal filaments ca. 2.5 mm long; anthers 3.5-4.5 mm long, dorsal spur at base ca. 0.25 mm long.  Berries 6-9 mm long.  Seeds 0.5-0.75 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 906).

Habitat/ecology:  "This noxious weedy shrub grows up to 2 m tall in pastures and forest. It is an aggressive invader which shades out all vegetation below it (Wester and Wood 1977). The seeds are principally dispersed by alien frugivorous birds, but any organism moving through the thickets will carry seeds away with it. It is probably not resistant to fire, an unlikely event in its habitat, but it rapidly colonizes burned areas.

"Clidemia hirta, the natural range of which extends throughout the humid tropics of Central and South America from southern Mexico to northern Argentina and the islands of the West Indies, is a densely branching melastomataceous shrub, growing up to four m in height and covered with dense hairs. Plants flower and fruit prolifically throughout the year, producing sweet, pulpy, dark-blue berries filled with minute seeds. On a good soil, this weed can produce an impenetrable stand. It thrives both in open grassland and in deep shade, and can result in greatly increased weeding costs in commercial plantations. A pioneering species after disturbance, in forests it tends to displace native plants."  (Courtesy Hawaii Department of Agriculture)

In its native range, tropical dry and tropical moist, usually characterized by very high humidity for most of the year with a dry period of about two to three months.  In Hawaii, widespread in areas that receive more than 12709 mm of rain annually; from almost sea level to 900 m.  It can also be found in areas of annual rainfall in excess of 76oo mm , with no dry season.  It is found in light conditions ranging from full sunlight to 100% canopy cover, demonstrating broad tolerance (Cronk & Fuller, 2001; pp. 74-75).

This plant is a serious pest in mesic and wet environments on O‘ahu and more recently in Wailau, Moloka‘i, as well as Nahiku and Kailua areas, Maui. It has also become established on Kaua‘i, West Maui, and Waiakea, Hawai‘i (C.W. Smith, 1985; p. 189).  In Fiji, "this weedy shrub may be found from near sea level to 1,323 m (the highest elevation), abundantly naturalized in open or dry forest, on the edges of forest, and in secondary forest"  (A. C. Smith, 1985; p. 386). In New Guinea, "a serious weed of cultivation and pastures, also found in forest" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 125).

Propagation:  Berries are avidly eaten by birds, which serve to spread the plant over wide areas.

Native range:  Tropical America (Mexico south to Peru and Paraguay) (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 4, 13)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35400)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Wisner 5
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83861)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 147670)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 159069)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 16264)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 111)
Vouchers cited: S. Perlman 21408 (PTBG), S. Perlman 21473 (PTBG), S. Perlman 21519 (PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Ling, Dana Lee (2009)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1923) (voucher ID: BISH 420467)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 386-387)
Voucher cited: Smith 119
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 159045)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 386-387)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 837
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mango Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 386-387)
Voucher cited: DA 5832
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 386-387)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4786.4
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 159052)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 386-387)
Vouchers cited: Smith 1703, Greenwood 211A, Bierhorst F38
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 159051)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 386-387)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1097
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 386-387)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 1210, Degener 14266, DA 7088, DA 12675 (Melville et al., 7051), DA 9178 (McKee 2742), DA 10953, Gillespie 2015, DA 11026, Bryan 187
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 14982)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 159044)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 159046)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 159047)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 159048)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 159049)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 159050)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 159053)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 159054)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 448470)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 386-387)
Voucher cited: St. John 18023
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 159043)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 906)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 906)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & K.R. Wood H80626 (BISH, PTBG). "All plants encountered were removed, and the large and dense thickets typical of Clidemia infestations have not yet been observed on Lāna‘i".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 906)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 906)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 906)
Voucher cited: Degener & Murashige 21707 (BISH)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 194)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 3, 8)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 9, 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Lorence 8220 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 11)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 653936)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 697865)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4476)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1285)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 523)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1968) (voucher ID: PTBG 21928)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 28060)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta var. hirta (L.) D. Don
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 9, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island extirpated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 11)
No examples found in this survey.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432368)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 53-54)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 125)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Voucher: Flynn 6951 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 285)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3912
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 427920)
Taxon name on voucher: Clidemia hirta (L.) D.Don
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 58)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
"Potential invader".
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 149)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Alofi Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Alofi Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 8)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 8)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 10, 36)
Cet arbrisseau est largement naturalisé en sous-bois de plantations de pins, de forêt secondaire où il peut former des fourrés très denses. Il est également trouvé en lisière et dans les petites trouées des forêts naturelles denses.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 8)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 30)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
Dense forest.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M (2003) (p. 482)
Subject of an eradication program.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 53-54)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 53-54)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 53-54)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 53-54)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 27)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 149)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Grande Comore (Njazidja) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 4)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 91)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 113)

Comments:  Already widespread in Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002) and becoming a problem species in American Samoa (scattered patches on Tutuila and Olosega; extensive areas on the western end of Ofu) (Space & Flynn, 2000).

On the State of Hawai‘i noxious weed list.

A declared noxious weed and problem species in Fiji.

Reported to be present in Niue and Tonga (Waterhouse, 1997) but not seen there (Space et al., 2004; Space & Flynn, 2001).

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  "Pulling is difficult but can be effective if done repeatedly for an extended period"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 20).

Chemical: "At the Lyon Arboretum, we ran some tests on cut & paint techniques using water-based triclopyr. The form we used was Brush-be-Gone concentrate, with blue dye marker added. We had 96-100% success in suppressing coppicing (n = 25), compared with 0-4% success with no treatment or Roundup concentrate (Painting with Roundup did suppress coppicing for a while, but the stumps painted with Roundup eventually did resprout.) For triclopyr to be effective, it needs to be applied immediately after cutting. When we tried cutting off the tops, leaving long stumps, then coming back 30-45 minutes later, cutting the stumps short, then painting them, we had much poorer success. Brush-be-Gone is a slightly diluted form of Garlon 3A, so if you need details on its properties, you can find them in the triclopyr chapter of the Nature Conservancy's weed control manual, available on-line at http://www.invasive.org/gist/handbook.html.

"The cut & paint technique is labor-intensive. It is useful when the Clidemia grows mixed with plants which need to be preserved. If the density of Clidemia is high, you may consider doing the cutting and painting in two waves a couple of weeks apart, so as to reduce the possibility that harmful amounts of triclopyr bleed from the roots of the treated Clidemia to their neighbors. If the treatment effects on neighboring plants is of no concern, it is much easier to spray. I think that the Arboretum uses Roundup" (Alvin Y. Yoshinaga, Center for Conservation Research and Training, Honolulu, HI USA (communication to ALLISCS list server).

"Triclopyr amine at 1 to 2 % in water in foliar application was effective at Kipahulu, Maui (Haleakala National Park). A 50% triclopyr amine application to cut stump was effective at one month in a trial at Ha‘ena, Kaua‘i (Limahuli Gardens). Thinline basal bark application of triclopyr ester was effective at one month to plants 7 to 9 ft tall at Kipahulu Valley, Maui (Haleakala National Park). Triclopyr ester at 2 lb./acre effective, especially with 0.5% crop oil.  Drizzle applications of glyphosate and of triclopyr were ineffective (University of Hawaii), but Pat Thile, DOFAW, reported good results with drizzle applications of triclopyr in oil on recovering clidemia that had been previously cut back" (Motooka et al., 2003).

Biological: Several expeditions for potential biological control agents have been made in Trinidad, and a number of insects are being currently screened. A thrips, Liothrips urichi, works well in open areas, but not in the shade of forests (Whistler, 1983) and it has been introduced in Palau (Muniappan et al., 2002). Testing of additional agents is under way in Hawai‘i. See also Waterhouse and Norris,1987, and Julien, 1992.

"The Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), the Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) of the Hawaii Department of Natural Resources, and University of Hawaii are monitoring the fungus Colletotrichum gloesporioides. HDOA and DLNR are testing Lius poseidon, a beetle; and moths Antiblemma acclinalis, Carposina bullata and Mompha trithalama"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  See Smith et al., 2002, pp. 13-20, for a summary of biological control efforts on this species in Hawai‘i.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Clidemia hirta is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Clidemia hirta as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Clidemia hirta may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

Additional information at the Woody Plant Ecology website about Clidemia hirta

Information on Clidemia hirta from the Bugwood Wiki

Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003) about Clidemia hirta

Fact sheet on Clidemia hirta from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions"

Information on Clidemia hirta from the Global Invasive Species Database

Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia about Clidemia hirta

References:

Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology (2006) 31, 747-758.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM523(Salsedo, Carl A. 113).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1979. Voucher specimen #BNM1285(Canfield, J.E. 691).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2007. Voucher specimen #BNM4476(Balick et al. 4476).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1923. Voucher specimen #BISH 420467 (Wilder, G.P. 20).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 159048 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 187).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 159046 (Gillespie, J.W. 2015).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 159047 (Parks, H.E. 20886).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 159054 (MacDaniels, L.H. 1063).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 159052 (Gillespie, J.W. 4786.4).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 159050 (Meebold, A. 16525).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 159045 (Smith, A.C. 119).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 159049 (Wilder, G.P. 1233).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 159051 (Smith, A.C. 1703).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 159043 (St.John, H. 18023).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 159053 (Degener, O. 14266).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 159044 (McKee, H.S. 2742).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 14982 (Ledua, M.K. 11026).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 159069 (Wisner, A.W. 5).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1964. Voucher specimen #BISH 147670 (Long, C.R. 2604).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 653936 (Fosberg, F.R. 50581).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 83861 (Whistler, W.A. W 311).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 448470 (Weiner, M.A. MW-72-F-148).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 427920 (Whistler, W.A. W 3912).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 432368 (Stemmermann, R.L. 3324).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1997. Voucher specimen #BISH 697865 (Herbst, D.R. 9830).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. 2001. Plant invaders. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. 241 pp.

Englberger, Konrad. 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Conservation Society of Pohnpei. 29 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Francis, John K., ed. 2009. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory (online resource).

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Haselwood, E. L./Motter, G. G. 1983. Handbook of Hawaiian Weeds. Second edition, revised and expanded by Robert T. Hirano. University of Hawaii Press. 491 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Julien, M. H. (ed.). 1992. Biological control of weeds: A world catalogue of agents and their target weeds (third edition). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 186 pp.

Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 4. R233;union. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-4E. 37 pp.

Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-3E. 35 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Ling, Dana Lee. 2009. Dana Lee Ling, Personal Communication.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Palau. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 44 pp.

MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarenes Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18 (1):51-61.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto. 2008. Recent incursions of invasive animal and plant species in the small and remote archipelago of Wallis and Futuna (South Pacific): "La maison brûle mais nous regardons ailleurs". In: Aliens 27: 8-9.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

Mune, T. L./Parham, J. W. 1967. The declared noxious weeds of Fiji and their control. Third edition. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. Bulletin No. 48. 87 pp.

Muniappan, R./Cruz, Junard/Bamba, Jesse. 2002. Invasive pants and their control in Micronesia. Micronesica Suupl. 6: 85-92.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG35400(David H. Lorence 8693).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG285(Tim Flynn 6951).

Oppenheimer, Hank. 2007. New plant records from Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i for 2006. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96:17-34.

Orapa, Warea. 2005. Warea Orapa, Weed Mangement Officer, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, pers. com. (Trip Report, Wallis and Futuna Islands, 8 to 22 May, 2004).

Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. 2003. Botanical and ethnobotanical inventories of the National Park of American Samoa. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii and Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, Department of Botany, University of Hawaii. 91 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Smith, Clifford W./ Denslow, Julie/ Hight, Stephen. 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawai‘i. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. Report to the Pacific Islands Committee, Council of Western State Foresters. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 32 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Thaman, R. R./Tuiwawa, M. 1999. Invasive, potentially invasive and adventive alien plant species of Fiji: a preliminary analysis of their status and measures required for their control. Preliminary draft discussion paper prepared for the SPREP Regional Invasive Species Strategy for the South Pacific Islands Region: Regional Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 26 September-1 October 1999.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Vos, P. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 2. The Comoros Archipelago (Union of the Comoros and Mayotte). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-2E. 34 pp.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Waterhouse, B. M. 2003. Know your enemy: recent records of potentially serious weeds in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Papua (Indonesia). Telopea 10(1):477-485.

Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. 1998. Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy: weeds target list. Second edition. Australian Quarantine & Inspection Service, Miscellaneous Publication No. 6/98. 110 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 93 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F./Norris, K. R. 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. Inkata Press, Melbourne. 454 pp.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1983. Weed Handbook of Western Polynesia. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn. 151 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Vegetation of Samoa and Tonga. Pac. Sci. 46(2):159-178.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 APR 2013.