Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Clerodendrum quadriloculare
(Blanco) Merr., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Ligustrum quadriloculare Blanco

Common name(s): [more details]

English: bronze-leaved clerodendrum, fire works, Philippine glorybower, shooting star, starburst bush

Marshallese: tirooj in belle

Other: bagauac

Palauan: kleuang

Pohnpeian: risiel, tuhkehn Palau

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "An erect, glabrous or nearly glabrous shrub or small tree 2 to 5 m high.  Leaves oblong, 15-20 cm long, apex shortly acuminate, base rounded, the upper surface green, the lower surface usually uniformly dark-purple.  Cymes terminal, panicled, usually many-flowered.  Calyx urceolate, purple about 1 cm long, about 2 mm in diameter, the limb spreading, the lobes oblong-elliptic, about 1.5 cm long.  Fruit ellipsoid, 1 to 1.5 cm long, purplish, the persistent calyx red and 1 to 1.5 cm long"  (Merrill, 1912; p. 402).

"Shrub from the Philippines with large, paired oval leaves that are dark green above and reddish purple below. The flowers, which are produced in very showy large clusters, each have a narrow pink tube that is commonly 3 inches or more in length, ending in five white, spreading lobes" (University of Hawai'i Botany Department).

Habitat/ecology:  Commonly planted as an ornamental for its foliage and showy flowers.

Propagation:  Produces large amounts of seed and suckers profusely from the roots.

Native range:  New Guinea, Philippines (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 6, 13)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 235)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 10)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 5)
Voucher: BMW 5804 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687758)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687759)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 5)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 18)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 4, 10)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 100)
Voucher cited: S. Perlman 21390 (PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 235)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
"Potential invader".
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 10)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 652423)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 652444)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 22216)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum quadriloculare
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral/Imada, Clyde T. (2000) (p. 31)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 103)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 131)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7-8, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7-8, 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7-8, 89)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7-8, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 31)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 611196)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9574)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merrill
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7-8, 92)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7-8, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7-8, 90)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Luzon, Mindanao, Negros, Panay
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 404-405)
In primary forests at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 27)
Cultivated only

Comments:  Suckers and sprouts profusely, making it an undesirable tree to plant for ornamental and other purposes. Mostly found along roads and cultivated in yards. However, On Pohnpei it was seen growing in full shade under the forest canopy in a dense, monospecific understory (Space & Falanruw, 1999). Planting of this species should be discouraged and it should be monitored closely for spread.

Control: 

Physical:  "Very difficult to control manually by pulling"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 15).

Chemical:  "For young plants, triclopyr (Garlon 4) can be used as foliar application and for large plants; undiluted Garlon 4 can be applied to cut stem"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 15).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 27 OCT 2009.