Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Chrysobalanus icaco
L., Chrysobalanaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: coco plum, icaco

Fijian: apolo

French: icacier, icaque, icaquier, prune colon, prunier coton

Spanish: ciruela de algodōn, icaco

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrub 1-3 m or bushy tree 2-6(-10) m high; leaves elliptical to obovate, rounded and often emarginate at tip, 3-10 cm long, 2.5-7 cm broad; cymes axillary and terminal, pubescent, 3-6 cm long; sepals (4-) 5; petals (4-) 5, white, about 5 mm long, perigynous; carpel solitary, protogynous; drupe green turning brownish-purple and then black, subglobose to obovoid, 1.5-3 cm in diameter, angled when dry."  (Adams, 1972)"An evergreen shrub 3 to 5 feet high, rarely a tree to 30 feet high, with thin, scaly, brown-gray bark  It is grown ornamentally for its attractive leaves, which are alternate, rounded, shiny, think, to 3 inches long, and for its sweet, rather tasteless and dry fruits, which are sometimes preserved.  The fruit is round, white to purple-black, an inch or more in diameter, and contains a ridged stone.  Flowers are small, white, and clustered"  (Neal, 1965).

Habitat/ecology:  Grows up to elevations of about 500 m.  Forms dense thickets.  "In its native range coco-plum is a coastal plant often found on beach dunes or in scrub or thickets, and it also grows inland along watercourses, usually on sandy, nutrient-poor soils"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 236).  In Fiji, "infrequently cultivated but often locally abundantly naturalized along roadsides near sea level, on the upper edge of beaches, and in thickets on the inner margin of mangrove swamps"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 43-44).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Coco-plum has an unusual distribution in that it is found naturally on both sides of the Atlantic—in tropical and subtropical America and in western tropical Africa.  In the Americas, its range extends from southern Florida and the Bahamas through the West Indies and from Mexico and Central America to southern Brazil.  It has been widely introduced in the tropics"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 236).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 43-44)
Vouchers cited: Smith 9611, DA 11458, DA 10100, DA 16493, Greenwood 1027, Greenwood 1027A, DA 7503, DA 10090, DA 10091, Meebold 21388, DA 1286, H.B.R. Parham 20
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 14487)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 14488)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 14489)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 14490)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 172792)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 172793)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Dry/mesic habitats"
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7334 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 598432)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8500 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 541730)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40883)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 61130
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 604909)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Dry/mesic habitats"
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: Gagne 1470
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Planté au bord du sentier". Voucher cited: J. Florence 3530 (PAP)
Naturalisée, Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 422435)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492158)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38141)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: Grant 5448
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2393 (PAP), J. Florence 4647 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 18116)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493292)
Taxon name on voucher: Chrysobalanus icaco L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands cultivated
Neal, Marie C. (1965)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: OED 2009121501 (BISH)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 237)
A recent introduction, cultivated at Lanao and at Los Banños.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 26)
Naturalised
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 236)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2700
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 236)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 236)

Comments:  A problem on the island of Raiatea, French Polynesia. Also present on Tahiti.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Chrysobalanus icaco is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Chrysobalanus icaco as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Chrysobalanus icaco may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Adams, C. D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. 848 pp.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 14490 (Parham, J.W. 3994).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1931. Voucher specimen #BISH 18116 (M.L.Grant 5448).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 172793 (A.Meebold 21388).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 172792 (A.C.Smith 9611).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 14487 (Parham, J.W. 10091).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 14488 (Parham, J.W. 10100).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 14489 (Parham, J.W. 10090).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 598432 (B.G.Decker 2675).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 422435 (Gagné, B.H. 1470).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 604909 (Fosberg, F.R. 61130).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 492158 (J.Florence 3530).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493292 (J.Florence 2393).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 541730 (J.Florence 8500).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle. 2012. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2009. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Part II: Plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 113:7-26.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG38141(Art Whistler W 4891).

Neal, Marie C. 1965. In Gardens of Hawaii. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 50, Bishop Museum Press. 924 pp.

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 908 pp.

Thaman, R. R./Tuiwawa, M. 1999. Invasive, potentially invasive and adventive alien plant species of Fiji: a preliminary analysis of their status and measures required for their control. Preliminary draft discussion paper prepared for the SPREP Regional Invasive Species Strategy for the South Pacific Islands Region: Regional Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 26 September-1 October 1999.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 10 MAR 2013.